President Soeharto,The Smiling General

President Soeharto
President Soeharto

Jend. Retired Army major. Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born in the hamlet Kemusuk, Argomulyo Village, District Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta, June 8, 1921 - died in Jakarta, January 27, 2008 at the age of 86 years was the second President of Indonesia (1967-1998), replace Soekarno. In internationally, especially in the Western World, Soeharto is often referred to as the popular "The Smiling General" (Indonesian: "The General of the Smile") because his face is always smiling in front of the press in any official state events.

Before becoming president, Suharto was the military leader during the Japanese occupation and the Netherlands, with the rank of Major General. After the September 30th Movement, Suharto stated that the PKI was the responsible party and led the operation to put it down. These operations have killed more than 500,000 inhabitants.

Suharto then seized power from Sukarno, and officially became president in 1968. He was re-elected by the Assembly in 1973, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998. In 1998, his term ends after resigning on May 21 that year, following the May 1998 riots and the occupation of the building DPR / MPR by thousands of students. He was the longest in Indonesia as president. Soeharto was replaced by B.J. Habibie.

Suharto legacy is still debated to this day. In his reign, the so-called New Order, Suharto build a stable country and achieve economic progress and infrastructure. Suharto Indonesia also restrict the freedom of citizens of Chinese descent, occupied East Timor, and is considered the most corrupt regimes of all time by the amount of U.S. $ 15 billion to U.S. $ 35 billion.

Attempts to prosecute Suharto failed due to deteriorating health. After a prolonged illness, he died of a multifunctional organ failure in Jakarta on January 27, 2008.

Early life and education

On June 8, 1921, Sukirah baby boy in her humble home in the hamlet Kemusuk, Argomulyo Village, District Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Births were assisted delivery shaman named Mbah Kromodiryo grandfather's brother who also Sukirah, Mbah Kertoirono. By his father, Kertoredjo Wagiyo alias alias alias Long Kertosudiro baby boy was named Soeharto. He was the third son Kertosudiro with Sukirah widower whom he married after a long time. With first wife, Kertosudiro the village water control officer or ulu-ulu, had two children. Kertosudiro and Sukirah marriage did not last long. Both were divorced not long after Soeharto was born. Pramod Sukirah remarried and had seven children, including a second son, Probosutedjo.
Less than 40 days, the baby was taken to the home Mbah Soeharto Kromo because his mother ill and could not breastfeed. Mbah a small Soeharto Kromo then taught to stand and walk. Soeharto also often invited to the field. Often, Mbah Kromo small Soeharto hold back when it was plowing the fields. Memories are never forgotten Soeharto. Especially when his grandfather gave the command of the buffalo while plowing a field. For out of it, learning to be a leader Suharto. Soeharto also like to play water, mud baths or find an eel.

When the larger, Suharto lived with his grandfather, Mbah Atmosudiro, the father of his mother. Soeharto school when he was eight years old, but often move. Originally schooled in elementary school (SD) in the village of Tens, Godean. Then, move to SD Pedes (Yogyakarta) because his mother and stepfather, Pramod Kemusuk moved to the South. Kertosudiro then move to Wuryantoro Soeharto, Wonogiri, Central Java. Soeharto left at her aunt's house who married a paramedic named Prawirowihardjo farmer. Soeharto was accepted as the oldest son and treated equally with the sons and daughters Prawirowihardjo. Suharto then sent to school and work on all subjects, especially math. He also got a pretty strong religious education of the family aunt.

Hobby farming grew during the Soeharto lived in Wuryantoro. Under the guidance of his uncle's farm assistants, Soeharto came to understand and work on farms. After school, Soeharto learn the Koran in breaking with his friends. Learn to recite even made up all night. He was also active in scouting Hizbul Wathan and getting to know the heroes such as Maya Raden Kartini and Diponegoro of a newspaper that reaches the villages. After graduating Lower School (SR) four years, Soeharto schooled by his parents to the lower secondary school in Wonogiri. After a 14-year-old, stay at home Hardjowijono Soeharto. Pak Hardjowijono is a friend of his father retired railroader. Hardjowijono also a Kiai Darjatmo loyal follower, leading religious figures in Wonogiri time.

Because it is often asked, Suharto often helps Kiai Darjatmo make traditional prescription for treating the sick. Soeharto returned to his native village, Kemusuk to continue their education in junior secondary school (SMP) in Yogyakarta Muhammadiyah. That was done because the school allowed students to wear without wearing gloves and footwear (shoes).

After finishing school, Soeharto actually wanted to go to higher schools. What power, father and other family could not afford due to economic conditions. Soeharto also tried to find a job here and there, but failed. He returned to his aunt's home in Wuryantoro. There, he was accepted as an assistant clerk at a Village Bank (Volk-bank). Not long after, she asked to stop.

One day in 1942, Soeharto read the announcement of acceptance of members of the Royal Netherlands Indisce Leger (KNIL). Dutch Colonial Army is a royal army. He enlisted and was accepted into the army. At that time, he had only seven days on duty with the rank of sergeant, as the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese. Sergeant Suharto then returned to Hamlet Kemusuk. It is here, began his military career.

Military career

On June 1, 1940, he was accepted as a student at the military school in Gombong, Central Java. After six months of basic training, he graduated from the military as the best graduate school and received the rank of corporal. He was elected as a model soldier in the School Officer, Gombong and officially became a member of TNI on October 5, 1945.

He joined the Dutch colonial army, the KNIL. When World War II raged in 1942, he was sent to London for a reserve soldier in the Army Headquarters during the week. After KNIL army sergeant, he later became a platoon commander, company commander in the Japanese-sponsored army, known as PETA army, regimental commander with the rank of major and lieutenant colonel battalion commander.

After the War of Independence ended, he remained a Garuda Mataram Brigade Commander with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He led the Garuda Mataram Brigade in insurgency operations in Sulawesi, Andi Azis. Later, he was appointed as Komadan APRIS (Armed Forces of the United States of Indonesia) Makassar Sector in charge of securing the city from the interference of ex KNIL / KL.

On March 1, 1949, he participated in a general attack yangberhasil occupying Yogyakarta for six hours. The initiative comes on the advice of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX to the Brigade Commander X Soedirman Lieutenant Colonel Soeharto immediate general offensive in Yogyakarta and occupied it for six hours to prove that the Republic of Indonesia (RI) is still there.
At the age of about 32 years, its work was transferred to the Headquarters Division and was named a Commander of the Regiment Infenteri 15 with the rank of lieutenant colonel (March 1, 1953). On June 3, 1956, he was appointed Chief of Staff Chief of Army and Territory Diponegoro in Semarang. Chief of Staff, he was appointed Commander of the Army and Territory officials Diponegoro. On January 1, 1957, promoted to colonel.
Black sheets coloring sheets also had military service. He was fired by General Nasution as Commander Diponegoro.

Event on October 17, 1959 dismissal was because of him are known to use the military institution to ask for money from firms in Central Java. Nearly brought the case to court-martial of Colonel Ahmad Yani.

On the advice of General Gatot Subroto then, he was released and transferred to the Command and Staff College Army (SESKOAD) in Bandung, West Java. At the age of 38 years, he followed the course of C SSKAD (Army Command and Staff College) in London and was promoted to brigadier general on January 1, 1960. Later, he was appointed as First Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army at the age of 39 years.
On October 1, 1961, another position as Commander of the Army I Corps Caduad (General Reserves AD) which has been entrusted at the age of 40 years to grow with his new position as Chief Kohanudad (AD Defense Command). In 1961, he also got a duty as Military Attache of the Republic of Indonesia in Belgrade, Paris (France), and Bonn (Germany). At the age of 41 years, was promoted to major general (January 1, 1962) and the Commander of the Liberation of West Irian Mandala and doubles as the Deputy Eastern Indonesia in Makassar. Upon his return from East Indonesia, Suharto, who has been promoted to major general, was pulled into the headquarters of the Armed Forces by General AH Nasution. In mid-1962, Suharto was appointed as Commander of the Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad) to 1965.

About a year later, exactly, January 2, 1962, Brigadier General Suharto was appointed as the Commander of the Liberation of West Irian Mandala. Major General Suharto was sworn in as Chief Minister of the Army and immediately dissolve the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and their mass organizations. Once appointed as the Commander of the Army Strategic Command (Kostrad) on May 1, 1963, he formed the Restoration of Security Operations Command and Order (KOPKAMTIB) to compensate for the G-30-S which raged on October 1, 1965. Two days later, on October 3, 1965, Major General Suharto was appointed as Commander Kopkamtib. This position gives great authority to conduct a cleansing of the people who were accused as the perpetrator G-30-S/PKI.

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