Biography of Albert Einstein - Theory of Relativity Discoverer

Biography of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879-18 April 1955) is a theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He put forward the theory of relativity and also greatly contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and "for his services to Theoretical Physics". Having formulated the theory of general relativity, Einstein became famous throughout the world, an unusual achievement for a scientist. In his old age, his fame beyond the fame of all scientists in history, and in popular culture, Einstein has become a byword for intelligence or even genius. His face is one of the most known around the world. In 1999, Einstein called the "People of the Century" by Time magazine. Popularity also makes the name "Einstein" is widely used in advertisements and other merchandise, and finally "Albert Einstein" are registered trademarks. To appreciate them, a unit in photochemical named Einstein, a chemical element named einsteinium, and a named asteroid 2001 Einstein.

1. Youth and university

Einstein was born in Ulm in Württemberg, Germany, about 100 km east of Stuttgart. His father named Hermann Einstein, a feather bed salesman who later underwent an electrochemical works, and his mother was Pauline. They were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. Their families were of Jewish descent; Albert schooled in Catholic school and his mother wishes he was given up violin lessons. At age five, his father showed him a pocket compass, and Einstein realized that something in space that is "empty" acted upon the needle; he would later describe this experience as one of the most evocative moment in his life. Although he made models and mechanical devices as a hobby, he is considered a slow learner, possibly due to dyslexia, shyness, or because the structure of rare and unusual in his brain (examined after his death).
At the time of Albert Einstein's childhood seems retarded because speech is very late. Quiet temperament and love to play alone. November 1981 born sister named Maja. Until the age of seven years of Albert Einstein like mad and throw things, including his brother.
Interest and passion for the field of physics appear at the age of five years. While I was lying weakened by illness, his father presented him with a compass. Albert was fascinated by the wonders of small compass, so he made up his mind to open the veil of mystery that surrounds the majesty and grandeur of nature.

Although quiet and do not like playing with his friends, Albert Einstein was still able to excel in school. Raportnya good and he became the champion class. In addition to school and to cultivate the science, Albert activities was play music and sing with her mother playing the works of Mozart and Bethoveen.

Albert spent his early studies at the ETH (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochscule). At the age of 21 years Albert passed. After graduating, Albert tried to apply for a job as an assistant lecturer, but was rejected. Albert finally got a temporary job as a teacher in high school. Then he got a job at the patent office in Bern. During that time still developing science of physics Albert ..
He later credited to the theory of relativity to this slowness, saying that by pondering space and time than other children, he was able to develop a more developed intelligence. Another, more lately, about the mental development is that he suffers from Asperger's Syndrome, a condition associated with autism. Einstein began to study mathematics at the age of twelve years. There are rumors that he failed mathematics in his education, but this is not true; replacement in the assessment unnerve the following year. Two of his uncle helped to develop interest in the intellectual world at the end of his childhood and early adolescence by providing suggestions and books on science and mathematics. In 1894, following the failure of his father's electrochemical business, the Einsteins moved from Munich to Pavia, Italy (near Milan). Albert stayed behind to finish school, finish a semester before rejoining his family in Pavia. Failure of the liberal arts portion of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich) in the following year was a step backwards; j by his family sent him to Aarau, Switzerland, to finish high school, where he received a diploma in 1896 , Einstein several times to register at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In the following year he took off his Württemberg citizenship and became not bekewarganegaraan.
In 1898, Einstein met and fell in love with Mileva Maric, a Serb who was a friend of his class (also a friend Nikola Tesla). In 1900, he was awarded a degree to teach by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and was accepted as a Swiss citizen in 1901 to gain further insight. During this time Einstein discussed his scientific interests with close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had a daughter named Lieserl, born in January 1902. Lieserl, at that time, was considered illegitimate because the parents were married.

2. Work and doctorate

Upon graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching job, because his brashness as a young man had apparently irritated most of his professors. The father of a classmate helped him obtain a job as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office dalah 1902. There, Einstein judged the inventors' patent applications for devices that require pengatahuan physics. He also learned to recognize the importance of applications despite sometimes poor descriptions, and learn from the director how "to express myself correctly". He occasionally rectified their design errors while evaluating the practicality of their work. Einstein married Mileva on 6 January 1903. Einstein's marriage to Mileva, a mathematician, is a personal companion and cleverness; On May 14, 1904, the couple's first child, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. In 1904, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent. He earned his doctorate after submitting his thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") in 1905 from the University of Zürich.
Year 1905 was a year full of achievements for Albert, because this year he produced works that are brilliant. Here are the works:
March: papers on the application ekipartisi on radiation events, this paper is an introduction to the light quantum hypothesis based on Boltzmann statistics. Explanation of the photoelectric effect in this paper that gave him the Nobel prize in 1922.
April: his doctoral dissertation about the new determination of molecular sizes. Einstein earned his PhD from the University of Zrich.
May: his paper on Brownian motion.
June: Paper deals famous, namely the theory of special relativity, Annalen der Physik published under the title Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Krper (Electrodynamics of moving objects).
September: the continuation of his paper in June, came to the conclusion termahsyurnya formula: E = mc2, namely that the mass of an object (m) is a measure of energy content (E). c is the speed of light in a vacuum (c>> 300 thousand kilometers per second). The masses have equality with energy, a fact which opens the opportunity of developing nuclear power project at a later date. One gram of mass is thus equivalent to the energy that could supply the electricity needs of 3000 homes (power 900 watts) for a full year, an amount of energy is enormous

In the same year he wrote four articles that provide the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature that he can appoint or many colleagues in science who can he discussed about his theory. Most physicists agree that three of those papers (on Brownian motion), the photoelectric effect and special relativity) deserved Nobel Prizes. Only the paper on the photoelectric effect would win one. This is ironic, not only because Einstein is far better known for relativity, but also because the photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein became free from the way in quantum theory. What makes these papers remarkable is that, in each case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results that had baffled scientists for decades. He submitted a thesis-thesis to the "Annalen der Physik". They are usually addressed to "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (from Latin: Year exceptional). Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) plans to celebrate 100 years of the publication of Einstein's work in 1905 as the Year of Physics 2005.

3. Brownian motion

In the first article in 1905 called "On the Motion-Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat-of Small particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", includes research on Brownian motion. Using the kinetic theory of fluids at the time was controversial, he determined that the phenomenon, which still lack a satisfactory explanation after a few decades after his first time he observed, providing empirical evidence (based on observation and experiment) the reality of atoms. It also lent credence to statistical mechanics, which at that time also controversial. Before this paper, atoms were recognized as berguan concept, but physicists and chemists hotly debated whether atoms really a real thing. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, a leader of the anti-atom school, later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had converted to Einstein's complete explanation of Brownian motion.
In 1909, Albert Einstein was appointed as a professor at the University of Zurich. In 1915, he completed both his theory of relativity. The highest award for his hard work paid off with a little since he took the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics. Besides Albert also developed the theory and quantum field theory converge.

In 1933, Albert and his family moved to the United States for fear of scientific activity - either as teachers or as researchers - disturbed. 1941, he took the oath as a citizen of the United States. Because of his fame and his sincerity in helping others who struggle, Albert became president of Israel who offered a second. But this position was rejected because he did not have competence in that field. Finally on April 18, 1955, Albert Einstein died, leaving major works that have changed world history.

Nevertheless, Albert had wept bitterly in the liver because of his great work - the general and special theory of relativity - is used as inspiration for making atomic bombs. This bomb is dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II took place.

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