Fukuzawa Yukichi,The founder of Keio University.

Fukuzawa Yukichi
Fukuzawa Yukichi , Was born in Osaka, January 10, 1835 - died in Tokyo, February 3, 1901 at age 66 years) is a Japanese author, as well as samurai Domain experts rangaku Nakatsu, translator, entrepreneur, and teacher who founded Keio University. He twice dispatched to the United States as a member of the delegation of Japan, and traveled to Europe, a year before the Meiji Restoration (1868).
Fukuzawa published numerous books and articles, among them Gakumon no Susume (Encouragement for Learning) (1872-1876) and Bunmeiron no Gairyaku (Outline of the Theory of Civilization) (1875). The opening sentence Gakumon no known Susume school children in Japan, "The sky does not create a person with dignity, above or below other people.

Most of his writings are published by university or Jinji Shimpo newspaper, which he founded in 1882. He also wrote many essays and satire on contemporary issues in politics, international relations, economics and finance, education policy, women's equality, and morality.

The main principle in her summed up in one word, namely independence. He believes that personal freedom and independence is indeed the foundation for modern society in the West. In achieving personal freedom, Fukuzawa prefer the scientific and practical methods of the West rather than the traditional study of classical Chinese. The more educated people, the more embedded the national liberty and public virtue and the rise of social morality by itself.

He is a founding member of a group of intellectuals Meirokusha, and the first chairman of the Tokyo Academy. His ideas about government and social institutions affect the modernization of Japan in the Meiji era. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern Japan. Since 1984,


Yukichi Fukuzawa was born as the second son (the youngest of five brothers) on January 10 1835 at Dojimahama (now Hotarumachi, Fukushima-ku), Osaka. His father was Fukuzawa Hyakusuke, low-ranking samurai Okudaira clan in Kyushu, and his mother was Ojun. His birthplace is owned by Domain Nakatsu warehousing buildings (Buzen Province) in Osaka, who was a trading center of Japan. His office is a low grade in the office of treasurer Domain Nakatsu warehouse in Osaka. When he was born, his father who also was happy because the Confucian scholars were lucky to get 60 volumes of Shang Yu Tiao Li (Japanese pronunciation: Jōyu Jōrei. 上谕 条例, Law of the Qing Dynasty during the reign of Emperor Qianlong), which had long craved. One of the kanji characters of the book, Yu (谕) is used as the name of her newborn baby.

His father died in 1836 when Yukichi was aged 1 year 6 months. His mother then returned to Nakatsu to bring five children (two boys and three girls). His family lived in poverty since his father's pension is not sufficient. Role as head of household was replaced by his older brother. Income coupled with odd jobs at home. His family had no money to put into school. Yukichi own work to fix slippers, Shoji, roof leaks, and all kinds of carpentry work. Since childhood, he liked to drink sake, but could not swim and climb trees. He made the adopted son of his uncle, so never use the name of Nakamura Yukichi.

Unlike the samurai children who learn classical Chinese literature and the teachings of Confucianism, Yukichi not like the book, and was not ashamed to read and write at the age of 14 or 15 years. After 10 years late for school, he began to study classical Chinese literature from Shiraishi Tsunendo. He mastered the correct book Zuo Zhuan (Japanese: Shunjū Sashiden). Shōbei Nakamura taught him the art of iaido sword. Although good in class, rank as a low-class samurai boy abused him outside the classroom. When playing with classmates, he was subjected to vanity samurai children from higher social classes. Since childhood, he had felt a deep hatred of the feudal society which does not allow people to move between classes.

Since the age of 12 or 13 years old, he started to not believe in the religion of Shinto or Buddhism, and became an atheist all his life. As a boy he opened the box in the temple of Inari, and the stone is replaced with the object of veneration had picked up another stone from the road.

Rangaku studied in Nagasaki

News of the arrival of the Black Ships fleet and Commodore Matthew Perry in Edo in July 1853 caused concerns everyone, not least the samurai and ordinary people in the remote town. Samurai who can master the Western-made cannon become indispensable. Western-made guns mean learning to master the Dutch language because of its user guide is written in Dutch. In 1854, Yukichi 21-year-old brother was told the only time to learn the Dutch language in Dutch trading post at Dejima, Nagasaki. The opportunity was given to him to potentially join the war. Yukichi but have no idea at all about the Dutch language to be learned, or external threats that are threatening Japan. He just wanted to get out of Nakatsu.

Yukichi arrived in Nagasaki in February 1854. Son of a Karo Domain Nakatsu, Okudaira Iki have relatives who became a monk in Koei-ji, a Buddhist temple in Nagasaki. Iki asked Yukichi ride in Koei-ji with him as long as they learn the cannon and Dutch. In 1855, Yukichi Yamamoto received an internship at home Monojirō, government officials who worked as a gunnery instructor. Yamamoto who taught him the cannon and the Dutch language was not good at speaking Dutch. Yamamoto family home, Yukichi teach children to read, and a housemaid. He was so loved by the Yamamoto family that wants to become a foster child. The offer was rejected because it previously had been used as a foster child.
Although Yukichi not get a lot of progress in learning rangaku in Nagasaki, Yukichi faster smarter so Okudaira Iki became jealous of him. Iki fabricate a false story and showed a fake letter to Yukichi. The letter contains a request to return to Yukichi Nakatsu for her mother's illness. He knew that the letter was a fake, but still decided to go from Nagasaki in 1855. At that time, Sonnosuke, Yukichi eldest brother was working in Osaka inherited his father's work.

Attended Tekijuku

Travel by boat across the Seto Inland Sea took two weeks because the boat stopped at various tempat.Ia down on the way, and walk from Akashi to arrive in Osaka. He was riding to stay in the warehouse where his eldest brother Domain Nakatsu work. Yukichi only intended to stop in Osaka before continuing the journey to school in Edo. But his intention canceled after persuaded her brother lived in Osaka and went to Tekijuku.
Yukichi studied rangaku in Tekijuku from year 1855 until 1857. Tekijuku is a physician-run medical school named Ogata Koan. The following year, Yukichi and his sister exposed to typhoid fever, and returned to Nakatsu to rest until healed.

In August 1856, he returned to Osaka to continue his schooling in Tekijuku. His older brother soon died of illness. Yukichi must be returned to Nakatsu to replace Sannosuke as head of the family, and re-use the previous name, Yukichi Fukuzawa. Father and elder brother of work can not be inherited by him because he is not experienced as treasurer. Although it has been working as a palace guard in Nakatsu, his desire to continue the school is not unstoppable. While in Nakatsu, Dutch book about the architecture of the castle (Handleiding tot de kennis der Kunst by CMH versterkings-Pel, 1852) borrowed from Okudaira Iki to be copied and translated (the book was never published later). [5] After the furniture and his father's book collection was sold to pay debts, Fukuzawa depart at the end of 1856 to go to school in Tekijuku. He barely has money to pay school fees.

In 1857, his record of achievement as the smartest student in school. Autobiography he wrote in later life contains about those times in Tekijuku school. Tekijuku all textbooks in Dutch language. The lessons follow the physics, medicine, biology, chemistry, physiology, and copy the books. He has also conducted numerous experiments, including experiments Faraday electricity.

Moved to Edo

In 1858, Fukuzawa was asked by the Government Domain Nakatsu to go to Edo as a Dutch teacher. After saying farewell to his mother in Nakatsu, Fukuzawa went to Edo in the fall of 1858. He invited his colleague who is also a graduate Tekijuku, Okamoto Shūkichi (later renamed or Furukawa Furukawa Masao Setsuzō).  In the Okudaira clan's residence complex, Fukuzawa rangaku school opened in 1858 by students of the samurai Domain Nakatsu. Up to 10 years after its establishment, the school has no official name, and known by the name of Fukuzawa Juku. [8] This school was later called Keio University, and in 1858 is celebrated as the founding of Keio University.

In July 1859, three Japanese ports opened to trade with foreign vessels according to the Treaty of Amity and Commerce signed between the United States and Japan the previous year. Not long after that, Fukuzawa a walk to the settlement of foreigners in Kanagawa (now Yokohama). He was disappointed not to see the writing on the boards of names written in English. Also mastered the Dutch language which can not be worn to communicate because the only foreign language there is English.

He felt the need to learn English, and began self-taught. Kaiseijo Library (later the Imperial University of Tokyo) is a place to read and read English dictionary. However, because the dictionary can not be borrowed out, he finally bought his own English-Dutch dictionary. English language learning progress is very slow because there were no teachers and a good dictionary.

Travel to the United States

In order to exchange instruments of ratification the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, Edo shogunate in 1860 Japan decided to send delegations to the United States. Shogunate Kanrin Maru ship purchased from the Netherlands to bring the delegation to the United States. Fukuzawa saw the opportunity to learn English in America. He contacted the commander of the ship Kimura Yoshitake, offered himself as a volunteer, and without difficulty be accepted as a bodyguard.

Kanrin Maru cruise is a historic occasion for the Japanese who tried to cross the Pacific without the aid of strangers. After a 37 day cruise in the middle of a series of storms, Kanrin Maru arrived in San Francisco in the spring of 1860. Yukichi most important achievement during the month in San Francisco is a Webster's English Dictionary had bought on the advice of John Manjiro.

Upon returning from the United States, Fukuzawa continued to work as a teacher. English added to the curriculum of the school where she taught, and students at the school grew. Foreign affairs office of the shogunate hired as an interpreter of diplomatic documents. In 1860, he also published his first book, Ka-Ei Zōtei Tsūgo (Complete Dictionary of Chinese-English). Cantonese-English dictionary Ka-Ei Tsugo Zi Qing's work had bought in San Francisco, given the additional equivalent word in English, Japanese, and katakana for how to read. Katakanawith dakuten  uses to represent the sound / v /. In 1861, Fukuzawa was married to Okin, daughter of upper-class samurai family Nakatsu Domain.

Travel to Europe

At the end of 1861, he was dispatched as a member of the delegation to the European countries. After stops in Nagasaki, the ship left for Europe on January 1, 1862 through the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea before arriving in Marseille. [5] Delegation in charge of negotiating a delay in opening additional ports for trade with foreign vessels, and changes in exchange rates exchange rate. Although the mission did not succeed, he had the opportunity to walk to France, England, Holland, Prussia, Russia, and Portugal. In his role as the interpreter of the delegation, a lot of new things that caught his attention, ranging from the hospital, arsenal, mining, and schools. He returned from Europe in late 1862. Based on the things seen and read during the trip, Fukuzawa published the first volume of Seiyo Jijō (The situation in the West), which became a bestseller.

Fukuzawa realize the important role of technological progress seen prosperity in Europe. He began to believe that revolutionary change in the knowledge society and way of thinking is a fundamental requirement for similar progress in Japan. While in London, he sent a letter to his friend in Japan. The letter reported that the most urgent work to do in Japan is to educate talented young people, and instead of buying machinery and weaponry. He decided to put off writing the second volume of Seiyo Jijō, and switch to translate the book Political Economy by John Hill Burton that the publication in 1867.

Observations about life in the West who managed to become best-selling book is an indication of interest and Japanese tolerance towards the West. Nevertheless, in Japan at that time there were groups who wish to expel foreigners ("barbarians") and get rid of Japanese scientists who are interested in Western studies. Proponents of Western thought as Fukuzawa Yukichi in the threat to be killed by a group of supporters ronin-jōi Sonnō slogan ("Support the Emperor, Banish The Barbarian"). The situation was so dangerous that Fukuzawa never leave the house at night. Omura Masujirō died as victims of homicide in 1869.

Fukuzawa went for a second time to the United States in 1867. This time as a member of the delegation to Washington, DC and New York to negotiate the purchase of a warship of the United States. He had occasion to visit the cities of the East Coast of the United States. As a souvenir from America, he bought as many text books to be copied by his students in Japan.

Keio Gijuku

After arriving back in Japan, Fukuzawa in 1868 moved to the former complex learning activities Arima clan settlements in Shiba Shinsenza (now Hamatsuchō, Minato district). In the same year, the school's name also changed to Keio Gijuku (now Keio University). Fukuzawa convert a private school owned by Domain Nakatsu a private school of modern times. Keio's name is taken from the name of that time era.

Learning activities at Keio Gijuku continue even when there is a clash between supporters of the empire and the army in the Battle of Ueno 1868 shogunate in Edo. He was face to give lectures on political economy theory of Francis Wayland as usual. To students who attend (reduced from 100 people to 18 people), he said, "Whatever happens in this country, any war that swept the country, we will not stop studying western sciences. As a school we are still standing, Japan remain a civilized country in the world.

Post-Meiji Restoration

After the Tokugawa Shogunate collapsed, the new Meiji government asked Fukuzawa to become government employees. He refused the offer, and never again held public office or received an award from the government.

In the following years, his attention is only taught at Keio or establish a new modern school in other places. He also translated and wrote pamphlets on the West, as well as the basic text books on various topics, ranging from physics, geography, military, the British Parliament, and foreign relations.

A series of essays written and published between 1872 and 1876 are summarized in Gakumon no Susume (Encouragement for Learning). The first essay is a manifestation of his views on the general public. The opening sentence reads, "The sky does not create a person with dignity, above or below others. Difference between the wise and foolish, between rich and poor, caused only a matter of education.

In 1879, Fukuzawa Yukichi was chosen as the first chairman of the Tokyo institute Gakushi Cain scholar-in (now the Japan Academy). He was one of the founders of Senshu Gakko in 1880 (now the University of Senshu). Its accounting school and gave the building as a campus of Meiji Kaido Senshu Gakko. In 1881, he co-founded the private railway company, Nippon Tetsudō Kaisha (Nippon Railway).

Jiji Shimpo newspaper issued on March 1, 1882. In the inaugural article, Fukuzawa stated that his paper-leaning independent and impartial. Much of his writing since it was published in the Jiji Shimpo, ranging from the serious to the satirical article. He raised all the contemporary issues, such as politics, foreign and domestic issues, political economy, education, and education policy, as well as a matter of morality, especially women's rights. A collection of his writings in the Jiji Shimpo fill almost half of the Collected Works Fukuzawa (Fukuzawa Zenshū) consisting of 22 volumes.
Keio Gijuku officially opened the university in January 1890 with the opening of the three majors, literature, economics, and law.  In November 1892, Fukuzawa remove the capital to establish Densenbyō Kenkyu-jo (now the Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Tokyo) by Kitasato Shibasaburō as the head.


He was hospitalized because of intracranial hemorrhage on September 26, 1898. After being recovered, he again fell ill on January 25, 1901. Yukichi Fukuzawa died at the age of 66 at his home on the campus of Keio Mita Gijuku, February 3, 1901. A memorial was set up in the former residence of Yukichi Fukuzawa. He left 9 children (4 males and 5 females). The first son was born 22 November 1863 Ichitarō) followed by a second son, Sutejirō on 9 November 1865. Son of the 8th and 9th child (both male), each born on July 14, 1881 and July 24, 1883.

His grave is located in Hongan-ji, Tokyo Osaki Village before being transferred in 1977 to Zenpuku-ji, Azabu, Tokyo. Death anniversary every February 3-ki called Yukichi (雪 池 忌). On that day, the staff abuzz Keio University made a pilgrimage to his tomb.
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