Silvio Berlusconi,Prime Minister of Italy

Silvio Berlusconi

Silvio Berlusconi (born in Milan (Italy), 29 September 1936 age 75 years) is a former Italian prime minister and the owner of a giant media company in Italy. He also was the leader of Forza Italia party which was formed in 1994 specifically for participation in politics. He became Prime Minister for seven months (May 10 1994-17 January 1995), but in 2001, he was again appointed to the position. Since then, the Berlusconi government is the longest in the history of the Italian republic. On 20 April 2005, Berlusconi handed in his resignation after his government lost the elections a number of regional and internal issues in the coalition. On 23 April 2005, he formed a new government without much change. He was elected again in 2008 until he resigned and was replaced by Mario Monti on 16 November 2011.

Berlusconi company today, Mediaset, comprises three national television stations watched by Italian TV audience of 45%. Berlusconi also has the Il Giornale, major newspapers and news magazine Panorama.

Berlusconi is also the president of soccer club AC Milan between 1986 and 2004, after he resigned - as required by law - on December 26, 2004 team did not choose a new president. [1], so now he just became the owner of that team. According to Forbes magazine it is the richest man in Italy, with a personal fortune worth 12 billion dollars in 2005, thus becoming the 25th richest person in the world.


Berlusconi was born into an upper-middle class family in Milan. His father, Luigi, working at a small bank, Banca Rasini, and in the 1960's he became general manager of the bank prior to retirement. Silvio was the first child of three children: Maria Antonietta Berlusconi is his brother (born 1943) and Paolo Berlusconi (born 1949), both of which are now self-employed. Silvio is proud that his father began his career at Banca Rasini as a clerk and retired as general manager. The judges indicated that Banca Rasini Palermo is one of the banks used by the mafia to launder money, according to an interview with Michele Sindona by Nick Tosches.
After completing his secondary school education at a Salesian college, which he passes while working as a singing waiter, he later studied law at the Università di Milano Statale, graduated cum laude with a thesis on the legal aspects of advertising in 1961.

Berlusconi did not enter military service in the army for a year which is a liability at the time.
He seems like a life destined to do business. As a youth, Berlusconi put on puppet shows for the entry fee. In high school, he was doing homework for another student who then paid according to quality, high value given the manuscript of high prices, while for the less successful script made free.
When studied law at the University of Milan, he had to pay tuition by selling vacuum cleaners, pictures of social events, and booking a cruise ship band's success in the dry season. At the university, Berlusconi befriended Bettino Craxi. He completed his studies at the age of 25 years and was offered a position at the bank by his father who also worked at the bank but declined. He does it expect the bank to lend the funds to finance the construction companies named Edilnord.

Business career

Berlusconi's business career started in the construction business in the 1960s. Edilnord he founded in 1962 to become the company a successful real estate developer. In 1969, Berlusconi built around the northern city of Milano Milano 2 with a name that eventually inhabited by ten thousand people. Recognize imaginary ideal society and in awe of "Utopia" More, he plans to build the perfect town. In 1974, he expanded his business empire by establishing Telemilano, a cable television station serving the Milano 2.

Vittorio Mangano

In 1974 Berlusconi and his family moved to Villa Casati, in Milano. Marcello Dell'Utri, a close friend and colleague Berlusconi, brought to the Villa is a young Mafia boss Vittorio Mangano, of Palermo (Sicily). Formally, Mangano was hired by Berlusconi as a custodian of the stables, but he also handles the Villa's security and sometimes the children bring to school Berlusconi. Berlusconi maintains Mangano as an employee even though he has a criminal record since the 1960's, and never fired him even when he was still working at the Villa, he was imprisoned for conviction, and the suspected kidnapping of a friend of Berlusconi. Mangano abruptly left in late 1976, because of worry about Berlusconi's reputation, since many newspapers began writing about the scandalous relationship with Berlusconi. Berlusconi later claimed that he did not realize who the real Mangano when he hired her.


In 1978 Berlusconi to build the first media group, Fininvest, which in five years, until 1983, generating 113 billion lire (the equivalent of 260 million euros in 1997). Funding sources are still unknown, because the complicated system of the company's largest shareholder (holding company) that makes it impossible to be determined. Among the banks that help to transfer this fund is Banca Rasini mentioned above.
Fininvest is planned to be expanded into a network of local TV stations covering the whole of Italy, all of which will broadcast the same material so consequently creating a national station. At that time it is against the law, because Italian law gives a monopoly to the public television broadcast. In 1980, he established Canale 5 (Channel 5) is a private television network with a national broadcast, which was soon followed by Italia 1 which was bought by the family Rusconi (1982) and rete 4 (1984) were purchased from Mondadori. Berlusconi get strong support in his efforts to create an empire of the first commercial TV and the only one of Bettino Craxi, who was then serving secretary general of the Italian Socialist Party and prime minister of Italy. In 1986, Berlusconi tried also to expand in France with the line La Cinq, but this project failed and he had to go in 1990. Over the years, the three TV channels owned by Berlusconi are not allowed to broadcast news and political commentary, but they are the main alternative of the three government-owned TV channel, Rai Uno, Rai Due and Rai Tre. New in the 1990's the government's monopoly on information is terminated.
Berlusconi went on to grab economic opportunities in the commercial broadcasting television and heard again his writings when he was approaching school age and the third ranked company with airtime to program a high level of sales percentage. In 1980, he characterized the company and consolidate his holdings in the media. Finivest (a private holding company founded in 1975 with it) and bought two other major private television stations (4 and Italia Uno rete).

In 1995, Berlusconi sold a portion of the media stocks, first of all to the German media group, Kirch (now bankrupt) and then through the sale to the public. Berlusconi back in 1999 to expand its media business in a partnership with Kirch called the Epsilon MediaGroup.

Current assets

The main group of Berlusconi, Mediaset called, consists of three national television channels, which control about half the national audience, and Publitalia, the company is a leading Italian advertising and publicity. Berlusconi also has Mondadori, Italy's largest publisher, which publishes Panorama, a news magazine and he is also interested in the cinema and home video distribution firms (Medusa and Penta), insurance and banking (Mediolanum) and various other activities. Her brother mastered Il Giornale, Il Foglio and his wife, both center-right newspaper that prints a lot less than the daily copies of the more popular newspaper Il Corriere della Sera and La Repubblica.
Berlusconi also has a soccer club AC Milan, who most people consider to be an important factor for success in world politics ("Forza Italia" means "Go, Italy!", And before the party was founded, he was connected with the national soccer team supporters .

Berlusconi helped create what has been described as a "duopoly" RAI and the conglomeration of local television stations. He classifies his business empire with the acquisition in print in the print media, namely: Panorama is a weekly news and Mandadori printing and retailing as a football team AC Milan.

Political career

"It comes down to the ground"

In the early 1990s, the two biggest Italian party, the Christian Democrats (Democrazia Cristiana) and the Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano) lost their voting strength because a number of allegations of corruption by law as part of their main members (see Mani Pulite scandal). This led to allegations that the election will be won by the Democratic Left Party, (formerly the Italian Communist Party and the main opposition party) and their allies from a coalition of progressive, unless there is a strong alternative: Berlusconi publicly announced on January 26, 1994 decision to plunge into politics ("Get down to the ground", so his words) with a platform that focused on the effort to defeat communism. This is because only a few weeks before he decided to enter politics, scandal Mani Pulite nearly resulted in the issuance of an arrest warrant for him and for the leaders of the executive group.

The debate about motives

One of the most widely debated issues concerning Berlusconi is the true reasons for Berlusconi to plunge into politics. Most of his critics argue that Berlusconi did for its own sake, to save his companies are virtually bankrupt and themselves from lawsuits. In contrast, Berlusconi's supporters hailed it as "new people" who will transform the bureaucracy into a more efficient and updating the state of the uppermost level to the bottom. They argued that he was so rich that he does not wish to use politics to become richer. Regarding the demands of his trial before Berlusconi's foray into politics, his opponents tried to get rid of it by filing a lawsuit.
When investigating these issues, a reporter mentioned a number of facts:

Mediobanca's annual report on the 10 biggest Italian companies showed that in 1992 the financial media and Berlusconi have debts of about 7140 billion lira while net worth 'only' 1053 billion lira. Furthermore, banks that provide loans began demanding repayment of loans and income from ads begin to stop growing after a substantial increase on previous years.

Between 1992 and 1993, Fininvest had a number of legal investigation by the prosecutors Milano, Torino and Rome. They investigate: allegations of bribes (to political parties and public officials in order to get the contract), allegations of false bills of Publitalia, the financing of political congresses and the frequent appearance on television.

Victory in 1994 elections

Berlusconi founded Forza Italia just two months before the election 1994, he formed two separate electoral alliance with the Northern League in high school in northern Italy, and the post-fascist National Alliance in the middle and the south. In a pragmatic move, he did not have fellowship with the National Alliance in the North, because they do not like League: Forza Italia and then allied with both parties who are not in communion with one another.
Berlusconi's massive campaign through advertisements on his three TV networks, and he won the election with the party Forza Italia became the first rank with 21% popular vote. He was appointed Prime Minister in 1994, but the short term because of the many contradictions in his coalition, the League, a regional party with strong electoral base in northern Italy, who was torn between federalist and separatist positions, and the National Alliance , a nationalist party that had just discard the reference to the ideology and fascist symbols.

I fall of Berlusconi government

In December 1994, the Northern League left the coalition with the reason that the agreement before the elections are not kept, and forcing Berlusconi to resign from his post and transferred to the pressure of the majority party's center-left. Coalition of opposition parties (now also include League) in his place. In 1996, a temporary coalition formed by the Northern League and the left-center was replaced, after a new election, with a center-left governments (without the League) led by Romano Prodi [3].

Victory in 2001 elections

In 2001 Berlusconi fights back as the leader of the center-right coalition Casa delle Liberta (Freedom House) which includes the Alleanza Nazionale, UDC (Christian Democrats), Lega Nord (Northern League) and the other parties. Its success made it once again Prime Minister, with his coalition won 45.4% of the vote for the House of Representatives (the lower house of Italy), and 42.5% for the Senate (Upper Italy).

 Next elections

Casa delle Liberta less successful in local elections in 2003 compared with 2001 national elections, and, as in many other ruling groups in Europe, in the 2004 elections to the European Parliament, gaining 43.37% support. Support Forza Italia also declined from 29.5% to 21.0% (in the European elections 1999 Forza Italia earn 25.2%). As a result of the election results, the other coalition parties, the election results more encouraging, asked Berlusconi and Forza Italia of greater influence in the government's political line.

Berlusconi III Cabinet

In the last local elections (3 April and 4 April 2005), the opposition Union (formerly known as the Olive Tree) easily won 12 of 14 regions holding elections: Berlusconi's coalition survived only in two regions (Lombardy and Veneto). Two parties, (UDC and NPSI) leaves Berlusconi government. Therefore, Berlusconi handed to the President dissolution of his government on 20 April 2005, after he hesitated. On 23 April he formed a new government with the same allies, but with several ministers and program changes. A major thing that is required by the UDC (and to some extent by the AN) is to reduce the focus on tax reduction which had previously been given by the government, because it is considered incompatible with the financial situation of Italy.

Berlusconi has been widely criticized choice: health department, who formerly held by Girolamo Sirchia, a famous doctor, delivered to Francesco Storace, who only weeks earlier was defeated in regional elections in Latium. Other controversial step is appointment of Giulio Tremonti as deputy prime minister. Tremonti just a few years previously the Minister of Economy, but was forced to resign. He strongly supported by the Northern League, but opposed by the UDC and AN.


When setting up the party Forza Italianya and plunge into politics, Berlusconi expressed his support for "freedom, individual, family, business, Italian tradition, Christian tradition and love for weaker people" [4]. Forza Italia party that can be considered a liberal in economic matters, although the reference to liberalism is more common in the first years of the party's development than it is now. Some people think Forza Italia a populist party. However, Forza Italia officially joined the European People's Party in 1999, and in theory choose to be identified as a Christian Democratic party. Internal democracy within the party is very low and internal dissent practically nonexistent. There is no known factions or currents within it. At present three party conventions have been held and they decided to support Berlusconi, and his re-election by the affirmative vote. Everybody in the party appointed by Berlusconi himself: for all these reasons, political opponents call Forza Italia "plastic party".

A number of Berlusconi ally, especially Lega Nord (Northern League) urge that imposed strict immigration controls and to obtain their support, Berlusconi had to do a number of policy changes. Berlusconi himself actually reluctant to do it as forcefully as the policies of what is desired by its allies [5]. Nevertheless, a number of steps have been taken, but the effects are controversial. The government, after introducing immigration legislation of the controversial ("Bossi-Fini", from the name of the leader of Lega Nord and Alleanza Nazionale) trying to get cooperation from the countries of Europe and other Mediterranean to deal with emergencies due to the large number of immigrants who seek reach the shores of Italy to use the ferries are too old and solid as well as fishing boats, risking (and often lost) their lives.

Matt Frei in his book, Italy The Unifished Revolution (1997) and Martin Clark in his book Modern Italy 1871-1995 (1996) states that the Berlusconi appeared at the Italian people sick and tired of names like the Liberals, Socialists, Christian Democrats, or the Social Democrats.

In 1984, Berlusconi appears with a new party called Forza Italia (Go up Italy). He also transformed his company into the party and the managers in the company's move to go to the field of political campaigning. The managers of the company is also nominated as a member of parliament, although they have never jumped into the political scene. Then came the surprise politicians, katrolan, and politicians cut corners. Before plunging into the arena they ditatar about the intricacies of politics. Thus was born a new form of politics, a new genre of politics that deviate from the politics of Italy. According to British historian EP Thompson called, the emergence of a media magnate Berlusconi at parties and political philosophy and ideology gave birth to a new language in a political culture based on television, the ball, and all-round konsumsif. He is also the owner of football club AC Milan and recorded one of the world's richest man according to Forbes Magazine.

Self-employed, Bettino Craxi and the Mafia

Berlusconi's career as an entrepreneur also has been frequently questioned by his opponents. Allegations put to him generally include suspicions about how quickly he stepped up as a construction entrepreneur in years 1961-1963, he raised allegations that in the years that he obtained money from sources unknown and possibly illegal. These allegations are considered by Berlusconi and his supporters as empty slander, trying to defame his reputation as someone who is successful because of his personal success.

His opponents also frequently mentioned in the events of the 1980s, including what is regarded as "the exchange of aid" between Berlusconi and former prime minister Bettino Craxi, who in 1990-1991 was charged with various charges of corruption, and even possible connections with the Italian Mafia. Last accusations arise mainly because he hired Vittorio Mangano. Berlusconi admitted that he had a personal friendship relations only with Craxi, and of course, denies any connection with the Mafia. Heated debate about this issue recently (2004) erupted again when Marcello Dell'Utri, the manager (later managing director) Berlusconi's publishing company, Publitalia 80 and a Forza Italia senator and an old friend Berlusconi, was sentenced to 9 years by a Palermo court on charges of "external relations with the Mafia". Berlusconi refused to comment on this.

On several occasions, the various laws passed by the Berlusconi administration have effectively delayed the continuation of the proceedings. This has raised a strong upheaval in Italian political opposition, because it has allowed his accusations expires, or completely stopped. Relevant examples are the law reducing punishment for all cases of the preparation of false accounts, the new law on rogatorie.

International, which makes Swissnya bank notes can not be used in court to fight it. law on "legitimate suspicion", which allows defendants to request the case be moved to another court if they believe that local judges are not fair to them. and most importantly, Lodo Maccanico law, passed in June 2003, which gave the five highest state officials, including Prime Minister, immunity from prosecution while they are still occupying the position. This law froze Berlusconi's position in the SME-Ariosto trial in which he is accused of bribing judges in previous decisions regarding participation in the public auction of state-owned food company SME in the 1980s. However, justice is not frozen to the other defendants, lawyers and former major companies Berlusconi (Fininvest) and former Italian defense minister, Cesare Previti, was sentenced to 5 years although it reduced the crime of bribing judges to simple corruption. At the January 2004 Lodo Maccanico canceled by the Constitutional Court because it was considered in conflict with the Italian constitution. Since then Berlusconi has declared his intention to file a return with the law menggunakna the correct procedure for constitutional modification. Because of these legislative measures, political opponents accuse Berlusconi passed laws ad personam, to protect himself from legal charges. Instead Berlusconi and his allies insist that such laws are consistent with the right of everyone to get a quick and fair justice, and the principle of "presumption of innocence" (garantismo). Furthermore they mengkklaim that Berlusconi's judicial persecution, which is done intentionally to drop it, a political trap engineered by judges who play politics (left wing).

Due to these reasons, Berlusconi and his government have been constantly at loggerheads with the Italian judiciary, which reached its peak in 2003 when Berlusconi commented to a foreign journalist that judges were "mentally ill" and "anthropologically different from other human race" . Later he claimed that these statements were intended only to specific judges only, and are joking. Even more seriously, Berlusconi government has been planning a judiciary reform intended to limit the freedom given to the judges in their decisions (for example by introducing a civil suit for the consequences of decisions they drop), but according to its critics, it otherwise would limit the independence of judges with a "de facto" place the judiciary under executive control. This update is opposed by almost all the judges of Italy and, after debate and struggle over the past three years, accepted by the Italian parliament in December 2004, but was immediately vetoed by the President of Italy, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, who said that most of the legislation that was passed was "clearly -clearly unconstitutional ". At present (February 2005) legislation is in the process are reviewed by the parliament, taking into account the objections President of constitutionality.

Berlusconi also has been charged in Spain due to evade taxes and violating anti-trust laws in connection with a private TV network Telecinco, but his status as a member of the European Parliament allows it to get legal immunity from prosecution.


Berlusconi is admired by some Italians because of his great success as an entrepreneur, and they complimented her on the ideas that they think is innovative and kewiraswastaannya spirit. But opponents point out that it tends to concentrate power in his own self, and this is reflected in the Forza Italia party organizers. Furthermore, the critics often accuse the majority of their financial success to our close relationship with the corrupt politicians who later proved (eg, Bettino Craxi) or even associated with the Mafia. Other critics say that he is too reactive to attacks from political opponents. Almost everyone agrees that he is very concerned with his appearance; in January 2004, after a profound speculation in the media, he admitted that he had undergone plastic surgery.

Berlusconi has always tried to maintain the character of a gentle, pleasant, with whoever he was speaking. His opponents responded to this as hypocrisy, kaerna he can deliver a hard speeches which sometimes tend to contain resentment, especially when he talked about the communists. He is known for his often tell funny stories to create a relaxed atmosphere, and try to make everyone happy in his presence. But he was very careful not to use Italian high, although with a slight accent Milano, while the politicians before 1992 tend to speak in jargon that is difficult to understand.

General Elections 2006

In the 2006 elections, Berlusconi narrowly defeated by Romano Prodi's center-left politician. Prodi in the lower group gained 49.8% of the vote, while Berlusconi's 49.7%, while in the Senate he ruled with 158 seats, 156 seats while Berlusconi.

Berlusconi refused to concede defeat and alleged that the election was marred by many of fraud. After several weeks, on May 2nd Berlusconi resigned and paved the way for Prodi to arrange his cabinet and replace it as the new Prime Minister.
The third period as Prime Minister (2008-2011)

After the fall of parliament in 2006, Forza Italia, the party he led since 1994 is liquidated. Berlusconi immediately form a new party composed of former members of the Forza Italia party loyal to him. The party was named the PDL or the People's Freedom Party. Berlusconi was sworn in again as prime minister in 2008 after winning elections held after the government of Romano Prodi was sentenced to a confidence vote. Berlusconi became one of the famous politician in Europe. In 2009, Berlusconi be the G8 Leaders and Senior Leaders on the G8. In the third term, Berlusconi faced allegations of law and sex scandals. He is accused of having sex with underage prostitutes. In 2011, Berlusconi has been criticized by the people of Italy.

Berlusconi is known to have sex party at her luxury villa even though he is opposed to all charges. Rocking the Italian economy in 2011 as the crisis of the Euro Zone. The crisis was initially dragged Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Ireland. Italy fell into crisis after piling up debt in excess of 2.6 Billion Euro revenue Italy alone. Berlusconi deemed incapacitated by the people and ultimately required to step down. In November, after some pressure from the party and parliament, Berlusconi decided to resign and was replaced by former European Commissioner, Mario Monti. Downfall is celebrated by millions of Italians who are very happy to finally be able to feel the new government after 17 years of political domination by the sinking Berlusconi of Italy. The newly elected PM Monti is expected to solve the economic problems Italy is currently in a state of bankruptcy.

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