Henrry Dunant | Father of the World Red Cross

Henrry Dunant
Henrry Dunant

Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) was a Swiss citizen who is known as the father of the World Red Cross is a young man who witnessed the terrible war between the forces of France and Italy against the Austrian forces in Solferino, northern Italy on June 24, 1859. is a Swiss businessman and social activist. During a business trip in 1859, he became a witness of the Battle of Solferino in Italy. He noted the memories and experiences in the book "A Memory of Solferino" which inspired the formation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. Geneva Convention of 1864 which is based on the idea Dunant; in 1901, he received the first Nobel Peace Prize together with Frédéric Passy.

Dunant was born in Geneva, Switzerland as the first child of businessman Jean-Jacques Dunant and his wife Antoinette Dunant-Colladon. His family was devoutly Calvinist and had significant influence in Geneva society. His parents are very stressed social values, and his father is also actively helping orphans and parolees, while his mother worked with the sick and poor. Dunant grew in the period known as the Reveil religious awakening, and at the age of eighteen he joined the Society of Geneva to give zakat. The following year, along with his friends, he founded the so-called "Thursday Association", a loose band of young men who meet for Bible study and helping the poor, and he spent much of his time to people involved in prison and social work visits.

On 30 November 1852, he founded the Geneva chapter of the YMCA and three years later he took part in the Paris meeting devoted to the founding organization internasional.Pada 1849, at age 21, Dunant was forced to leave Calvin College for the poor, and he started an internship at the company's Money Exchange Sautter.Setelah Lullin et work, he settled as a bank employee.


Henri Dunant, 1860.Dalam circa 1853, Dunant visited Algeria, Tunisia, and Sicily, served on a company devoted to the "colonies of Setif" (Compagnie des colonies de Setif genevoise). Although little experience, he managed to complete the task. Inspired by the trip, he wrote the first book with the title An Account district in Tunisia (Notice sur la Regence of Tunisia), published in 1858. In 1856, he made efforts to operate in overseas colonies, and, after being given a concession of land occupied by the French-Algerian, corn-growing and trading company called Financial and Industrial Company of Mons-Djemila Mills (Société et Financiere Industrielle des Moulins des Mons-Djemila).

However, the rights of land and water are not clearly defined, and the colonial authorities did not particularly cooperative. As a result, Dunant decided to appeal directly to the French emperor Napoleon III, who with the army in Lombardy at the time. France had fought alongside Piedmont-Sardinia against Austria, which has occupied much now Italy. Dunant wrote a book full of flattering compliment to Napoleon III in order to present to the emperor, then traveled to Solferino to meet with him personally.

Dunant arrived at Solferino on the night of June 24, 1859, on the same day a battle between the two parties have taken place in twenty-eight thousand dekatnya.Tiga injury, death and dying, still on the battlefield, and there was little will strive to provide care. Shocked, Dunant himself took the initiative to organize the civilian population, especially women and girls, to provide assistance to the wounded and sick soldiers. They lack adequate materials and supplies, and Dunant himself arranged the purchase of materials needed and helped set up a temporary hospital. He convinced the people to serve their injuries regardless of the side in the conflict by the slogan "Tutti Fratelli" (All are brothers) who coined by a woman near the town of Castiglione delle Stiviere.

He also managed to obtain a doctor's release was taken by Austria Perancis.Setelah returned to Geneva in early July, Dunant decided to write a book about her experiences, she is entitled Un Souvenir de Solferino (A Memory of Solferino). It was published in 1862 in an edition of 1,600 copies and was printed at Dunant's own expense in the book, he described the battle, and cost, and after that the chaotic circumstances. He also developed the idea that in future there should be a neutral organization to provide care to soldiers luka.Dia books distributed to many leading political and military figures in Europe. Dunant also began to travel through Europe to promote the ideas nya.Bukunya very positively received, and the President of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, jurist Gustave Moynier, making the book and topic suggestions at February 9, 1863 meeting of the organization.

They made five of the Committee to pursue the possibility of their implementation and made Dunant one of the members. The other is Moynier, the Swiss army general Henri Dufour, and physician Louis Appia and Theodore Maunoir. Their first meeting on February 17, 1863 is now considered established on the International Committee of the Red Cross. From the beginning, Moynier and Dunant has increased conflicts and differences of opinion about their vision and assume rencana.Moynier Dunant to found the idea of ​​neutrality for the protection and maintenance of cellular implausible Dunant advised not to insist on this concept.

However, Dunant continued to advocate this position in the travel and conversations with high-ranking political and military figures. This intense personal conflict between Moynier, who took a more pragmatic approach to the project, and Dunant who was among the five idealistic vision, and led by Moynier to attempt to attack Dunant and bid for leadership.

In October 1863, 14 countries took part in a meeting in Geneva organized by the committee to discuss the improvement of care for wounded soldiers. Dunant himself, but, just because the protocol Moynier leader of efforts to reduce its role. A year later, a conference organized by the Swiss diplomat Parliament led to the signing of the first Geneva Convention by 12 countries.

Among several other awards in subsequent years, in 1903 Dunant was awarded an honorary doctorate by the medical faculty of the University of Heidelberg. He lived in a private hospital in Heiden until the end of his death. In the last years of his life, he suffered from depression and paranoid about being pursued by the creditors and Moynier. There are even days when Dunant insisted that cook in a private hospital that first taste of the food before he was asked to protect against the possibility of poisoning. Although he continued to adhere to Christian belief, at the end of the year she Spurned and attacked Calvinism and organized religion in general. The nurse, acting late in life is to send a copy of the book Müller italian queen with a personal dedication. He died on October 30, 1910, outliving his nemesis Moynier by just two months. Although survivors of the ICRC on the conferment of the Nobel prize, the two rivals never achieve reconciliation. According to the desire, he was buried without ceremony in Sihlfeld Cemetery in Zürich.Menurut he will, he donated funds to secure a "free bed" Heiden in a private hospital that will always be available to the poor in the area and deeded money to friends and organizations social in Norway and Switzerland. The remaining funds to the lender partially relieving his debts; its inability to clear the debt is a big burden for him until his death. Former private hospital in the houses that now Henry Dunant museum Heiden.

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