Biography Kyai Haji Abdurrahman Wahid (Gud Dur)

Kyai Haji Abdurrahman Wahid, nicknamed Gus Dur was born in Jombang, East Java, 7 September 1940 from the couple Wahid Hashim and Solichah. Nation's teachers, reformers, scholars, thinkers and political leaders are replaced by BJ Habibie as President after the elected Assembly election results of 1999. He was President of Indonesia from October 20, 1999 Special Session of the Assembly until 2001. He was born with the name Abdurrahman Addakhil or "the Conqueror", and then more fondly known as Gus Dur. "Gus" is a typical boarding school honor calls to the child kiai.

Gus Dur is the first son of six children, from a very respectable family in the Muslim community of East Java. Grandfather of his father, KH. Hashim Asyari, is the founder of Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), while his maternal grandfather, KH Bisri Syansuri, is a boarding school teacher.

Gus Dur's father, KH Wahid Hashim, was involved in the Nationalist Movement and became Minister of Religious Affairs in 1949. His mother, Hj. Sholehah, is the daughter of the founder of Boarding Schools Denanyar Jombang.

After the declaration of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945, Gus Dur back to Jombang and remained there during the Indonesian war of independence against the Dutch.

End of 1949, he moved to Jakarta after his father was appointed as Minister of Religious Affairs. He studied in Jakarta, go to primary school before moving to SD KRIS Matraman Perwari.

Gus Dur is also non-Muslims are taught to read books, magazines, and newspapers by his father to expand his knowledge. In April 1953, his father died in a car accident.

His education continued in 1954 at Junior High School and not the next grade, but rather because the issue of intellectual property. His mother then sent him to Yogyakarta to continue education.

In 1957, after graduating junior high school, he moved to Magelang Tegalrejo to study at boarding school. He developed a reputation as a gifted student, boarding school education completed within two years (should be four years).

In 1959, Gus Dur Tambakberas moved to boarding school in Jombang and get his first job as a teacher and head of the madrasa. Gus Dur is also a journalist and magazine Horizon Culture Jaya.

In 1963, Wahid received a scholarship from the Ministry of Religious Affairs to study at Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, but did not finish because of the criticality of his mind.

Abdurrahman then studied at the University of Baghdad. Although initially neglected, Gus Dur could finish his education at the University of Baghdad in 1970.

He went to Holland to continue his education, to study at the University of Leiden, but was disappointed that his education in Baghdad less recognized here. Wahid then went to Germany and France before returning to Indonesia in 1971.

Abdurrahman returned to Jakarta and joined the Institute for Research, Education and Economic and Social Affairs (LP3ES), an organization which consisted of progressive Muslim intellectuals and social democrats.

LP3ES founded the magazine Prisma where Gus Dur became one of the main contributors and often around the pesantren and madrasas all over Java.

When this is the one concerning the condition of boarding because of the traditional values ​​of the pesantren increasingly faded due to the change and poverty pesantren which he saw.

He then canceled study abroad and prefer to develop the pesantren.

Abdurrahman Wahid continued his career as a journalist, writing for Tempo and Compass. His article was well received and started developing a reputation as a social commentator.

With the popularity of it, she received many invitations to give lectures and seminars, allowing him to commute Jakarta and Jombang.

In 1974, Gus Dur in Jombang get additional work as a teacher at the Islamic School Tambakberas. One year later, Gus Dur add to his work with a Master's Book of Al Hikam.

In 1977, he joined the University of Hashim Asyari as dean of the Faculty of Islamic Practice and Belief, by teaching additional subjects such as pedagogy, Islamic law and missiology.

He then asked to play an active role running the NU and refuse. However, Gus Dur was finally accepted after his grandfather, Bisri Syansuri, persuaded him. Since taking this job, Gus Dur also choose to move from Jombang to Jakarta.

Abdurrahman Wahid got his first political experience in the legislative elections of 1982, while campaigning for the United Development Party (PPP), a combination of four Islamic parties, including NU.

NU Reform

NU formed Team Seven (including Gus Dur) to work on reform issues and help revive the NU. On May 2, 1982, high officials met with Chairman of the NU NU Idham and asked him to resign. However, on May 6, 1982, Gus Dur called Idham option to withdraw is not constitutional. Idham Wahid urged not to retreat.

In 1983, Suharto was re-elected as president for a term of four by the Assembly and began taking steps to make Pancasila as state ideology. From June 1983 until October 1983, Gus Dur became part of the group assigned to prepare the NU response on this issue.

Wahid then concluded NU should accept Pancasila as state ideology. To further revive NU, he resigned from the PPP and NU's political parties to focus on social issues.

At NU National Congress of 1984, Gus Dur was nominated as chairman of NU and he accepted on condition that duly authorized to select a board that will work under him.

The election of Gus Dur viewed positively by Suharto. Acceptance of Pancasila Wahid along with the image of moderation makes it favored the government. In 1987, he maintained support for the regime by criticizing the PPP in the 1987 legislative elections and strengthen the Golkar Party.

He became a member of the Assembly of Golkar. Although the preferred regime, Gus Dur often criticize the government, including projects funded Kedung Ombo World Bank. This stretches the relationship with the government and Suharto.

During his first term, the focus of Gus Dur pesantren education system reform and managed to improve the quality of the education system so that schools compete with secular schools.

Gus Dur was reelected for a second term at the National Conference Chair NU 1989. At that time, Suharto, who was involved in a political battle with the Armed Forces, trying to attract the sympathy of Muslims.

In December 1990, the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI) was formed to attract the hearts of Muslim intellectuals under the auspices of Soeharto and Habibie presided. In 1991, several members of the ICMI asked Gus Dur to join, but declined because it considered to be sectarian and just make more powerful Suharto.

Even in 1991, Gus Dur against ICMI by forming Democracy Forum, an organization composed of 45 intellectuals from various religious and social communities. In March 1992, Gus Dur was planning to hold a Great Council to celebrate the anniversary of the NU-66 and plan the event was attended by at least one million members of the NU.

Suharto ordered the blocking event with the police drove a bus containing members of the NU once arrived in Jakarta. Abdurrahman had sent a protest letter to Suharto declared that NU is not given the opportunity to present Islam that is open, fair and tolerant.

Towards the National Congress of 1994, Gus Dur himself nominated for a third term. This time against Suharto. The supporters of Suharto, like Habibie and Harmoko, campaigning against the reelection of Gus Dur.

When the national consultation was held, guarded polling stations Armed Forces, other than to attempt to bribe members of the NU does not choose it. However, Gus Dur was elected permanent chairman of NU's next period.

During this period, Gus Dur's political alliance with the launch of Megawati Sukarnoputri's Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI). Megawati's popularity remains high pressing Suharto plans.

Gus Dur Megawati advised to be cautious, but Megawati ignored it until he should pay dearly when in July 1996 Chairman of the Democratic Party headquarters taken over support of government support, Soerjadi.

In November 1996, Gus Dur and Suharto met for the first time since Gus Dur's re-election as chairman of NU. December of that year he also met with Amien Rais, a member of ICMI are critical of government policies.

July 1997 was the beginning of the monetary crisis in which Suharto began to lose control of the situation. Abdurrahman encouraged the reform movement with Megawati and Amien, but suffered a stroke in January 1998.

On May 19, 1998, Gus Dur, along with eight Muslim community leader, Suharto, who provided a concept called Reform Committee proposal. Gus Dur and eight people were refusing to join the Reform Committee.

Amien, who is the opposition of Suharto's most critical moment, not like a moderate view of Abdurrahman against Suharto. However, Suharto then back on May 21, 1998. Vice President Habibie replaced Soeharto became president. One effect of the collapse of Suharto is the birth of a new political party, and in June 1998, asked for the NU community Gus Dur formed a new political party.

New in July 1998 responded to Gus Dur's idea for founding a political party is the only way to fight the Golkar in the general election. The party is the National Awakening Party (PKB). On February 7, 1999, Gus Dur's PKB officially declared as a candidate for president.

April 1999 elections, CBA won 12% of the vote with the PDI-P won 33% of the vote. On October 20, 1999, the Assembly re-start a new president. Abdurrahman Wahid was elected President of Indonesia to-4 with 373 votes, while Megawati only 313 votes.

During his reign, Gus Dur was dissolved Ministry of Information and the Ministry of Social Affairs and became the first leader who gives Aceh a referendum to determine the autonomy and not independence like in East Timor. On December 30, 1999, Wahid visited Jayapura and managed to convince the leaders of Papua that he encourages the use of the name Papua.

In March 2000, the Gus Dur government began negotiating with the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). Two months later, the government signed a memorandum of understanding with GAM. Gus Dur is also proposed that the TAP MPRS No.. XXIX/MPR/1966 which prohibit Marxism-Leninism is revoked.

He also tried to open diplomatic relations with Israel, while he also became the first leader to reform the military and military issue of socio-political space. Two scandals emerged in 2000, namely scandal Buloggate and Bruneigate, which then dropped it.

In January 2001, Wahid announced that the Chinese New Year (Lunar) be an optional holiday. This action followed by lifting restrictions on the use of Chinese characters. On July 23, 2001, the Assembly formally memakzulkan Gus Dur and Megawati Sukarnoputri replaced it with.

At the April 2004 election, obtaining 10.6% CLA vote and choose Wahid as a presidential candidate. However, Wahid failed to pass a medical examination and the Commission refused to include it as a candidate. Solahuddin Wahid and support which is a pair Wiranto. On July 5, 2004, Wiranto and Solahuddin lost the election. In two rounds of presidential elections between Yudhoyono-Kalla pair with Megawati-Muzadi, Gus Dur vote.

August 2005, Gus Dur, the Coalition for Unity Risen archipelago together Try Sutrisno, Wiranto, Megawati and Akbar Tanjung criticize government policies Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, especially in the matter of removal of fuel subsidies.

Personal life

Gus Dur Sinta Nuriyah married and blessed with four children: Alissa Qotrunnada, Zanubba Ariffah Chafsoh (Yenny), Anita Hayatunnufus, and Inayah Wulandari.

Yenny active politically in the CBA and currently is Director of The Wahid Institute.

Gus Dur's death, on Wednesday, December 30, 2009, at Mangunkosumo Cipto Hospital, Jakarta, at 18:45 due to various complications of diseases, heart and kidney disorders among which he suffered for a long time.

Before his death he had to undergo regular dialysis. A week before being moved to Jakarta, he was treated in Surabaya after travel in East Java.


In 1993, Gus Dur to receive the Ramon Magsaysay Award, the prestigious award for the category of social leadership.

He was ordained as the "Father of Chinese" by some Chinese figures Semarang in Tay Kak Sie Temple, Gang Lombok, on March 10, 2004.

On August 11, 2006, and Gus Dur Arivia girl get Tasrif Award-AJI as Freedom Fighters Press, 2006. Gus Dur and the girl is judged to have passion, vision, and commitment in the fight for freedom berekpresi, equal rights, the spirit of diversity, and democracy in Indonesia.

He received an award from the Simon Wiethemthal Center, a foundation engaged in the enforcement of human rights because it is considered as one of the leaders who care about human rights issues.

Gus Dur was awarded the Valor Mebal with offices in Los Angeles because Wahid judged to have the courage to defend minorities.

He also received awards from Temple University and his name is immortalized as the study group name Abdurrahman Wahid Chair of Islamic Study.

Gus Dur's gained a lot of Honorary Doctorate (Doctor Honoris Causa) from various lebaga education, namely:

- Honorary Doctorate from Netanya area Humanitarian University, Israel (2003)

- Honorary Doctorate in Law from Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea (2003)

- Honorary Doctorate of Sun Moon University, Seoul, South Korea (2003)

- Honorary Doctorate from Soka Gakkai University, Tokyo, Japan (2002)

- Honorary Doctorate in Philosophy of Law from Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)

- Honorary Doctorate from the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)

- Honorary Doctorate of Law and Political Science, Economics and Management Sciences, Humanities and Sciences of the Pantheon Sorbonne University, Paris, France (2000)

- Honorary Doctorate from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)

- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Twente, The Netherlands (2000)

- Honorary Doctorate from Jawaharlal Nehru University, India (2000)

Leave a Reply