Thomson J.J Biography - Inventors Electron

Joseph John Thomson was born in Creetham Hill, a suburb of Manchester on December 18, 1856. He enrolled at Owens College, Manchester in 1870, and in 1876 enrolled at Trinity College, Cambridge as a regular student. He became a member of Trinity College in 1880, when he became a recipient of the Wrangler and Smith (2nd). He remained a lifetime member of Trinity College. He became speaker in 1883, and became professor in 1918. He is professor of experimental physics at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, where he replaces John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, from 1884 to 1918 and became a distinguished professor of physics at Cambridge and the Royal Institution, London.

Thomson recently was interested in the structure of atoms which is reflected in his book entitled Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings which won him the Adams Prize in 1884. His book, entitled Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry published in 1886, and in 1892 he published a book called Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism. Work recently wrapped the results obtained subsequent to the appearance of James Clerk Maxwell's treatise of the famous and often referred to as the third volume of Maxwell. Thomson worked with Professor J.H. Poynting to write a physics book in four volumes, entitled Properties of Matter and 1895, he produced the book Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, fifth edition, published in 1921.

In 1896, Thomson visited the United States to give a course of four lectures, which summarizes new studies at Princeton University. These lectures were published under the title next Discharge of Electricity through Gases (1897). Upon his return from the United States, he obtained the most brilliant job in his life, which is studying the height of the cathode rays on the discovery of electrons, which are discussed during the course of the evening lecture to the Royal Instution on Friday, April 30, 1897. His book Conduction of Electricity through Gases published in 1903, narrated by Lord Rayleigh as a review of "great days at the Cavendish Laboratory". The next edition, written in collaboration with his son, George, in two volumes (1928 and 1933).

Thomson returned to America in 1904, to deliver six lectures on electricity and matter at Yale University. Lecture contains some important statements about atomic structure. He discovered a method for separating different kinds of atoms and molecules are different, with the use of positive rays, an idea developed by Francis Aston, Dempster and others, which led to the discovery of many isotopes. And again, for it is only mentioned and he wrote books, including The Structure of Light (1907), The Corpuscular Theory of Matter (1907), Rays of Positive Electricity (1913), The Electron in Chemistry (1923) and his autobiography, and the book Recollections and Reflections (1936), among many other publications. Thomson, a recipient of the order of service, inaugurated in 1908.

He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1884 and became president during 1916-1920; he received the Royal medal and Hughes in 1894 and 1902, and received the Copley Medal in 1914. He was awarded the Hodgkins Medal (Smithsonian Institute, Washington) in 1902; Franklin Medal and Scott Medal (Philadelphia), 1923; Mascart Medal (Paris), 1927; Dalton Medal (Manchester), 1931; and the Faraday Medal (Institute of Civil Engineers) at in 1938. He is President of the British Association in 1909 (and of part A in 1896 and 1931) and he holds an Honorary Doctorate degree from the University of Oxford, Dublin, London, Victoria, Columbia, Cambridge, Durham, Birmingham, Göttingen, Leeds, Oslo, Sorbonne, Edinburgh , Reading, Princeton, Glasgow, Johns Hopkins, Aberdeen, Kraków, and Philadelphia.

In 1890, he married Rose Elisabeth, putir Sir George E. Paget, K.C.B. They were awarded a son, now Sir George Paget Thomson, professor emeritus of physics at the University of London, who was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937, and a daughter.

J. J. Thomson died on August 30, 1940.

Overview of Electrons

Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles and are generally written e-sebaga. Electrons do not have the basic components of any known or substructure, so he believed to be elementary particles. Electrons have a mass of about 1 / 1836 the mass of the proton. angle momentum (spin) intrinsic electron is half an integer value in units of h, which means that it includes fermions. Antiparticles of electrons called positrons, which are identical with electrons, but positively charged. When an electron collides with a positron, both possibilities can be mutually berhambur or totally destroyed, menghasilan pair (or more) photons of gamma rays. Electrons, which belong to the first generation lepton family of particles, betisipasi in gravitational interaction, the interaction of electromagnetic and weak interactions. same sprti all matter, electrons possess properties of particle and bath tub waves (wave-particle duality), so that it can collide with other particles and berdifraksi like a light. Because electrons including fermions, two electrons occupy different quantum state can not be the same in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.

The concept of electrical charge that can not be subdivided theorized to explain the chemical properties of atoms by the natural philosopher Richard Laming at the beginning of 1838; name electron was introduced to name this charge in 1894 by Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney. Electrons were identified as particles in 1897 by J. J. Thomson.

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