The Beatles Biography

The Beatles are a group of British rock musician, was formed in Liverpool in 1960, often regarded as commercially successful musician and most widely acclaimed in popular music. Since 1962, this group consisted of John Lennon (rhythm guitar, vocals), Paul McCartney (bass guitar, vocals), George Harrison (lead guitar, vocals), Ringo Starr (drums, vocals). Starting from the flow of skiffle and rock and roll 1950's, this group will play music in various genres ranging from folk rock to psychedelic rock, also incorporate elements of classical music and other elements in innovative ways. The Beatles is seen as the embodiment of progressive ideas, influence the socio-cultural revolution of the 60's decade.

Originally consisting of five people Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, Stuart Sutcliffe (bass) and Pete Best (drums), The Beatles only famous in the clubs of Liverpool and Hamburg for 3 years starting in 1960. Sutcliffe resigned in 1961, and Starr replaced Best next year. Beatles forged so professionally by a businessman named Brian Epstein's music store after he became their manager and musical potential of polished by producer George Martin. The end of 1962, the Beatles had to find success in the United Kingdom with the first single Love Me Do. Throughout the following year, they toured internationally until 1966 and concentrate on recording the album in the country until disbanding in 1970. Solo careers of each call it a success, but Lennon was killed in New York City in 1980 and Harisson died of cancer in 2001. McCartney and Starr are still active musically.

In the years recording studio album, the Beatles released works best judged by the critics, one of which Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), hailed as a masterpiece. Four decades after disbanding, the music is still popular. They have more than one album number 1 in the charts of Great Britain and the perch longer than any musician. Based on the RIAA, they are a musician who sells the most albums in the United States. In 2008, Billboard magazine released a list of musicians with the biggest sales in the history of the Hot 100 to celebrate 15 years anniversary of the U.S. singles charts where The Beatles were at number one. Seven times received Grammy Awards, 15 Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors, The Beatles were collectively included in the compilation of TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the 20th century.


Formation and early years (1957-1962)

Was 16 years old, singer and guitarist John Lennon formed a group called The Quarrymen skiffle music with school friends from Liverpool in March 1957. Paul McCartney was fifteen years old when they met in July of that year. George Harrison joined as lead guitarist in February next year after McCartney was invited to watch. In 1960, Lennon school friends came out and he entered Liverpool College of Art. The three men were playing rock and roll each get a drummer.

Joined as a bass in January, a classmate of Lennon, Stuart Sutcliffe suggested to change the group name to The Beetles as a form of admiration for Buddy Holly and The Crickets, then changed again to The Beatals in the first months of the year. After trial and error other names such as Johnny and the Moondogs, Long John and The Beetles and The Silver Beatles, the group eventually became the Beatles in August. Lack of a permanent drummer menjapada problems when their unofficial manager, Allan Williams set up residence for a gig in Hamburg, Germany. Before August is over, they held auditions and found Pete Best, and immediately went to Hamburg four days later, signed a contract to play music with a showman named Bruno Koschmider for 48 nights. Shows the best-selling Beatles in Hamburg where they play music for hours and caused a traffic jam because the person who filled out to watch their performances.

Harrison who were aged 17 years in the month of August 1960, lied about his age to the German officer in order to stay in Hamburg. Initially they were placed in the Indra Club, and then move them to Koschmider Kaiserkeller in October after the Indra was closed because it is noisy. When the Beatles were breaking a contract with a gig at the Top Ten Club who became his rival, Koschmider Harrison reported that under the authorities and deported in November. McCartney and Best were arrested for arson in their room in mid-December, after which they were also deported. Lennon returned to Liverpool in mid-December while Sutcliffe remained in Hamburg for several months. He was dating a German girl, Astrid Kirchherr took photographs of the first professional hair cut Sutcliffe and the Beatles with a popular style of that period, Exi (existentialist). Sutcliffe hairstyle later inspire the other Beatles.

Subsequent years, the group returned to Hamburg. They try to keep Preludin deliberately to be a powerful force on stage all night long. Sutcliffe decided to leave and the beginning of 1961 and continued his studies in Germany, so McCartney took over bass. German producer Berta Kaempfert signed the Beatles had become four people to the background band Tony Sheridan recordings in several pieces. Credited to Tony Sheridan and The Beat Brothers, the single My Bonnie recorded in June and released a few months later, finished 32nd Musikmarkt charts.

Beatles become better known as home to Liverpool. While still often played at The Cavern Club, they met Brian Epstein, the owner of a local recording studio and a music columnist. Beatles appoint Epstein as manager in January 1962 and Kaempfert agreed to release them from the German recording contract. After an audition with Decca Records turned down their comments "group guitar is out of date, Mr. Epstein" ("Guitar groups are on the way out, Mr. Epstein"), George Martin asked the group to the Parlophone label at EMI. In April they returned to Hamburg and were surprised by the news of Sutcliffe's death from a brain hemorrhage.
The group received briefings George Martin at EMI Abbey Road Studio, London for the first time in 1962. Martin complained about how best to play the drums and Epstein suggested that the Beatles wore a session drummer in the studio. Finally, Best replaced by Ringo Star just out of Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. Actually Starr was playing for the Beatles to replace Best absentee. Martin was hired as a session drummer Andy White for one session only. White contributed the single Love Me Do and PS I Love You. Released in October, Love Me Do entered the charts top 20 in the UK and was number 17. When finished recording for the second single titled Please Please Me in November, they began appearing on television news programs the first time in People and Place.

The group's final gig in Hamburg in December 1962. Now it becomes a pattern, all four members contributing to vocals, though only rarely so outspoken Starr is mainly because its reach is limited. Lennon and McCartney had worked together in writing lyrics, while Harrison also sang a little while. Epstein Beatles smell great potential, suggested that the group be more professional when entertaining. Lennon repeated the words of his manager, "Look, if you really want to get into a bigger place, you have to change - stop eating on stage, stop swearing, stop smoking" ("Look, if you really want to get in these bigger places, you're going to have to change, stop eating on stage, stop swearing, stop smoking ") He also said," we used to wear clothes that we like, on and off the stage. He told us that the genie is less looks nice and advised to wear pants that are more appropriate, but he did not want us to look the boxes. He wants us to have the style of our own individuality ... an option for mewujudukannya or still eat chicken on stage ". ("We used to dress how we liked, on and off stage. That he'd tell us the jeans were not particularly smart and Could we possibly manage to wear proper trousers, but he did not want us looking Suddenly square. He'd let us have our own sense of individuality ... it was a choice of making it or still eating chicken on stage ".)

Beatlemania and touring years (1963-1966)

With the usual success of Love Me Do, Please Please Me is more acceptable with enough enthusiasm, occupied the number two in the charts after its release in the United Kingdom in January 1963. Martin was originally intended to record the LP (LPs) of the first Beatles at The Tavern Club, but after being in there like "acoustic ambience in the oil tank" ("the acoustic ambience of an oil tank"), records transferred during a session in Studio Abbey Road. Ten songs in Please Please Me is packed with four tracks from two previous singles. Allmusic commented about how jealous the group's debut album was cast Please Please Me in one day: "A few decades after its release, the album still feels fresh, khsususnya because its origin is strong." ("Decades after its release, the album still sounds fresh, Because of its intense precisely origins. ") John Lennon said that he and Paul McCartney's" just write songs à la Everly Brothers and Buddy Holly, pop songs that contain no more than just a thought - to create the sound. And his words almost no relation "(" just writing songs à la Everly Brothers, à la Buddy Holly, pop songs with no more thought of them than to create a That-sound. And the words were almost irrelevant. ") Released in March 1963, the album to number 1 is the initial merajainya 11 Beatles studio album until 1970 at the top of the charts United Kingdom. 3rd single, From Me to You was released in April and also at number 1. On its release in August, the fourth single She Loves You, became the first Beatles singles to break through the sale of one million pieces.

The Beatles' iconic logo "drop-T" drawn by the designer Ivor Arbiter, was released in 1963. The logo was first placed in the drum purchased Epstein and Ringo Starr in stores Arbiter. Group around the United Kingdom three times in half a year: during the four-week tour starting in February, three weeks in March and May to June. Their popularity is marked by enthusiastic fans themselves in the name of Beatlemania. Performances everywhere greeted with screams. Even the police should be sprayed with water hoses to control the fan-made to protect the Beatles. This sparked a debate in the British parliament. In late October, the Beatles tour to Sweden for 5 days, for the first time outside the country after appearing in Hamburg. Returning to England, they were greeted by thousands of screaming fans, as well as 15 journalists and photographers covering the weather from BBC Television in heavy rain. Start the next day for 6 weeks, the Beatles back on tour which has always been hot news in the media.

Please Please Me still topped the charts for 30 weeks until finally penetrated with their own album, With The Beatles who also sat at number 1 for 22 weeks. The album was recorded with studio production techniques. With The Beatles album by Allmusic commented: "The sequel of the highest order, who made the original one better by using their own tone and adding depth" ("a sequel of the highest order-one That betters the original by developing its own tone and adding depth. ") As has become standard, the album was released in late November, earlier than the next single, I Want to Hold Your Hand. With The Beatles hailed by TIME music critic William Mann, who said that Lennon and McCartney are the "great English composers of 1963" ("the outstanding English Composers of 1963"). The magazine published a series of articles that discuss Mann's analysis of the music of the Beatles and respect them. With The Beatles became the second album charts in the history of the United Kingdom that sells a million copies, printed before the first time by the South Pacific soundtrack in 1958.

British Invasion (British Invasion)

Debut of The Beatles in the United States is actually delayed for nearly a year when Capitol Records, EMI America branch backward to release either or Please Please Me From Me to You. Negotiations with American independent label producing some singles to be released, but the issues of royalties and a mockery of the Beatles hairstyle moptop be another obstacle. When the Capitol started to handle the sale, instead of the original LP release, instead compile the album is different for the American market from the early Beatles recordings and chose the songs of their own as singles. American charts had "mastered" by the Beatles after a CBS news shows preaching the "madness" Beatlemania in the UK that makes Capitol accelerate the release of I Want to Hold Your Hand in December 1963. Their American debut finally scheduled a few weeks later.

When the Beatles left England on February 7, 1964, about 4,000 fans gathered at Heathrow, waving and screaming as the plane took off. I Want to Hold Your Hand has sold 2.6 million copies in the United States during the 2 weeks before, but The Beatles are still nervous about whether they will be accepted. International Airport John F. Kennedy, New York City, they were greeted by about 3000 people. Their first appearance on American television stations directly 2 days later on The Ed Sullivan Show, watched by nearly 74 million viewers - more than 40 percent of the population of the United States. The next morning, a newspaper wrote about The Beatles "could not carry a tune across the Atlantic" ("can not sing songs from across the Atlantic"), but a day later, their first concert at Washington Coliseum proving their popularity in America. The next day, also received rousing applause during a concert at Carnegie Hall. They are present again at the Ed Sullivan Show for the second time before returning to England on February 22.

At week 4 April, The Beatles had held 12 positions on the Billboard charts Hot 100 singles chart, including the top five positions. In the same week, the third American LP was released and just like two other LP, occupies the number one or two in the American charts. The Beatles popularity attracted the attention of the unexpected will British music, and several other British musicians began their debut in the U.S. and so successful that in the next 3 years the influence of the British music invasion of Britain termed the (British Invasion). The Beatles-style long hair, unusual for that time ridiculed by many adults, but to inspire young people.

International tour began in June with 22 concerts for more than 19 days in Denmark, Holland, Hong Kong, Australia, and New Zealand. Starr was hospitalized after undergoing tonsillectomy began a half touring and was replaced by Jimmie Nicol. In August they returned to America to tour 23 cities during the month, from San Francisco to New York City. But there are problems with the speakers at that time is not good and are small, so the sound of music played hard, but have to deal with screaming fans.

A Hard Day's Night, Beatles for Sale, Help! and Rubber Soul

The members of The Beatles started acting in a film titled A Hard Day's Night, released in July and August 1964, one each in London and New York. Directed by Richard Lester and produced by United Artists Records from March to April 1964, this film is in black and white documentary The Beatles are noisy with laughter atmosphere but reap success. According to Allmusic, soundtrack film whose title the same, A Hard Day's Night, shows that The Beatles were "completely fulfill its role as a music group. All the different effects on the two first album has been merged into sound bright, happy, original, and filled with a screeching guitar sound "(The Beatles is" truly coming into their own as a band. All of the disparate influences on Their first two albums had coalesced into a bright, Joyous, original sound, filled with ringing guitars. ")" The sound of the guitar the ringing "is actually the result of a stringed Rickenbacker electric guitar that Harrison's 12 specially provided by the manufacturer.

Beatles for Sale, The Beatles' fourth album, marked by a serious conflict between commercialism and creativity. Recorded between August and October 1964, the format is deliberately trying to be like A Hard Day's Night, which was like two previous album, no songs are recycled. Faced with a long international tour, the process of writing lyrics a little annoyed. Lennon said the "matter menjapada major problems" ("Material's Becoming a hell of a problem".) Six songs in the album included recycling. Released in early December, eight song numbers were well received, reflecting the maturity of the song material produced jointly between Lennon and McCartney.

In April 1965, Lennon and Harrison dentist coffee sprinkled them with LSD while they were eating dinner together. The two young men admitted that they deliberately tried drugs, followed by Starr on one other occasion. McCartney is somewhat reluctant, but finally admitted in 1966, and later became the first to discuss it openly. The Beatles with a bachelor's coronation Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) by Queen Elizabeth II sparked controversy after the award was previously nominated to the Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Some conservative MBE recipients return their insignia in protest because at that time was just awarded an MBE awarded to veterans of war and statesman.

The Beatles' second film, Help!, Which again directed by Lester, released in July. Mentioned as a joke-style film featuring Bond, the Beatles and their critics contend. McCartney said: "Help! Is a good film, but not the film we are - we are only a guest star. Movie was fun, but in fact, to the idea of ​​a film, it appears less true". ("Help! Was great but It was not our movie, we were sort of guest stars. It was fun, but Basically, as an idea for a film, it was a bit wrong.") The songs background is dominated by Lennon , who became the lead singer and author of most of the lyrics, including songs that included the main Help and Ticket to Ride. Albums are also similarly titled, Help! become the fifth studio LP, containing a mixture of original material and the previous record. Other characteristics there and overdub increasing the classic game of musical instruments, like a stringed instrument in the quartet ballad Yesterday. Composed by McCartney, Yesterday song until now the most widely sung songs again. Dizzy Miss Lizzy song, a cover song.

On August 15, the third visit of the Beatles to the United States opened with a concert at Shea Stadium, New York with 56,000 people audience. The next nine concerts in various cities to successful pan. At the end of the tour, the four personnel were introduced to Elvis Presley, who was also influential figures in their music. Elvis took to the house, composing music through improvisation (jam session ") in the living room, discussing the music business and sharing anecdotes.

Rubber Soul album, released in early December, was hailed by critics as the advancement of new and increasingly complex music. Writer and critic Ian MacDonald judge Rubber Soul "recovered the sense of direction That had Begun to elude them during the later stages of work on Beatles for Sale" ("restoring a sense of the board of directors that has been abandoned since the end of construction stage Beatles for Sale"). In contrast to Help! which include elements of classical music like flute and stringed instruments, sitar game memperkenalan Rubber Soul Norwegian Wood in the song (This Bird Has Flown), a creativity that goes beyond the custom in rock music. There is also a way of writing lyrics that are more different between Lennon and McCartney, although still collaborate. The theme also extends from matters of romance and so on. On the other hand, attracted the attention of fans of songs that capture the beauty and depth of its meaning. There is speculation that interprets that "Norwegian Wood" means "marijuana". In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine put Rubber Soul to No. 5 among the 500 Best Albums of All Time (The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time), while Allmusic praised as one of the classic folk rock album. Lennon and McCartney with the other, they think the album is "just another album" ("just another album")

Controversy, the years in the studio and split (1966-1970)

The events that occurred up to the tour finals
In June 1966, Yesterday and Today, a compilation album produced by Capitol Records for the U.S. market caused a stir because of its cover featuring The Beatles grimaced and butchers wear, complete with meat and a mutilated baby doll. The possibility of an allusion to the Capitol that are considered "butchered" their albums. Thousands of coffee marketed under the cover of the album is different. A first original album is still wrapped in the price of $ 10.500 reached on an auction in December 2005. In a tour to the Philippines after the release of Yesterday and Today, The Beatles did not deliberately make a first lady, Imelda Marcos, was offended by refusing a breakfast feast of the presidential palace in Manila. As a spokesman, declined to Epstein smooth feeling never received a formal invitation like that. The Beatles and then realized that the demand for the Marcos regime should not be answered with the word "no". Been some dangerous commotion and they struggled out of the country.

After arriving in England, they faced criticism from conservative religious and social institutions the United States, such as the Ku Klux Klan because of Lennon's comments when interviewed by a British reporter Maureen Cleave of the Evening Standard. Lennon said that "Christianity is dead" and the Beatles "more popular than Jesus now" ("more popular than Jesus now"). Comments were ignored in the UK, but raises kontreversi Belt gospel, southern United States, according to the magazine Datebook. Because of comment that, in South Africa, the songs of The Beatles played on the radio was banned until 1971. Epstein criticized Datebook Lennon had misrepresented comments at a press conference and explain Lennon "If I say that television is more popular than Jesus, I might already be affected by it". ("If I'd said television was more popular than Jesus, I Might have got away with it.") Lennon said that he only thought how others perceive the Beatles, and then went on "if you want me to apologize, if it makes you are happy, well, I'm sorry "(" if you want me to Apologise, if That will make you happy, then okay, I'm sorry. ")

Revolver and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band

After Rubber Soul, the next album, Revolver, released in August 1966 before the Beatles' last tour. Pitchfork Media to analyze the comments that the album as "the voice of the band that evolved into a high confidence level" ("the sound of a band growing into supreme confidence") and "reaffirms what is expected of popular music" ("Redefining what was expected from popular music. ") Gould said the album was" woven with a swirling motif, repetition and reversal "(" woven with motifs of circularity, reversal, and inversion "). Lyrics of the song began to be given a touch complicated and diverse musical styles, ranging from stringed instrument arrangements to psychedelic rock. The album cover was designed by Klaus Voormann, their friends from active play in Hamburg. The cover shows a black and white caricatures of The Beatles in "pen and ink style" creations Aubrey Beardsley. The first number starts with Paperback Writer, Rain ending. Both the song and made a short video clip is considered as one of the pioneers of the first music video, which was then broadcast on Top of the Pops and The Ed Sullivan Show.

Among the most experimental track numbers from the album Revolver Tomorrow Never Knows is the lyrics were written by Lennon Timothy Leary book, The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Recordings were done with 8 pieces of tape that is spread across multiple building a recording studio, every-tiapnya personnel and crew are represented by varying the studio fro movement of the tape recorder, while Martin makes the combination of the overall sample recordings. Eleanor Rigby song written by Paul accompanied by a stringed instrument game, analyzed as a "real derivatives, refer to the style or genre of the song that is not known" ("a true hybrid, conforming to no recognizable style or genre of song.") Harrison began diligently to songwriter, and three compositions have a place in the album. In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked the third gave the Revolver as one of the best albums of all time. On the American tour followed, none of the songs from the album is played. August 29 concert at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, is the last international tour, marking the end of 4 years full concert appearances have exceeded 1,400 times around the world.

Free from the burden of the concert, the desire to do the experiment met with Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band began in December 1966. Geoff Emerick remember "The Beatles insisted that everything on the Sgt. Pepper should be different. We've got the microphone right below headfon brass and made into a microphone that is downloaded on the violin. We used a large archaic oscillator to vary the speed of musical instruments and vocals, We also cut the tape so bebarapa part, together alternating spin on the wrong track ("The Beatles insisted on everything That Sgt. Pepper had to be different. We had microphones right down in the bells of brass instruments and headphones turned into microphones attached to violins. We used giant primitive oscillators to Vary the speed of instruments and vocals and we had tapes chopped to pieces and stuck together upside down and the wrong way round. ") parts of the song A Day in the Life recorded with 40 dozen instruments in an orchestra. Nearly 700 hours required to complete. In February 1967, they first issue a double A-side with non-album single Strawberry Fields Forever "/" Penny Lane; Sgt. Pepper newly released in June. complexity album created by 4-track recording technology is inviting other musicians to surpass the Beatles.

Dedengkot Beach Boys, Brian Wilson, in the midst of personal crisis and his efforts to complete the Smile album, after listening to Strawberry Fields as it gets "huge blow" and immediately abandon all efforts to compete. Sgt. Pepper won praise as a great masterpiece. In 2003, Rolling Stone register it to number one of 500 Best Albums of All Time. Jonathan Gould commented:
(A work of rich, continuous, and the abundance of the genius collaboration with bold ambitions and astonishing originality that expand the possibilities and raise expectations as to what would be the experience of listening to popular music through the album. On the basis of this perception, Sgt.Pepper be a catalyst an explosion of mass enthusiasm for the album rock format that can alter the aesthetic and economical record business, far beyond the initial pop explosion of the Elvis phenomenon of Beatlemania in 1956 and 1963.)
(A rich, sustained, and overflowing work of collaborative genius Whose Ambition bold and startling Originality Dramatically enlarged the possibilities and raised the expectations of what the experience of listening to popular music on record Could be. On the basis of this perception, Sgt. Pepper Became the catalyst for an explosion of mass Enthusiasm for album rock-formatted That would revolutionize both the aesthetics and the economics of the record business in That far outstripped the Airways Earlier pop explosions triggered by the Elvis phenomenon of 1956 and the Beatlemania phenomenon of 1963. )

Sgt. Pepper was the first pop album that includes the complete lyrics on the back cover. The lyric is also the subject of analysis and speculation fan, for example, "Celebrated Mr. K" in the song Being for the Benefit of Mr.Kite! may reflect a surreal fiction writer Franz Kafka. American literary critic and professor Richard Poirier wrote an essay, "Learning from the Beatles" ("Learning from the Beatles"), after observing the students who listen to the music of The Beatles with envy. Poirier identified what he termed a "mixed allusiveness" ("mixed modality") of their songs: "It is always wise to assume that they are doing one thing or express themselves in one style ... a kind of feeling about a subject that is not enough The resulting ... every feeling often arises in the context of the alternatives that seem to contradict each other. " ("It's unwise ever to Assume That they're doing only one thing expressing Themselves or in only one style ... one kind of feeling about a subject is not enough ... any single induced Often feeling must exist within the context of seemingly contradictory alternatives. ") McCartney said at the time," We write songs. We know what we mean. But within a week there is someone who says something about it and you can not deny it ... you put yourself at a level artimu yourself to our songs "(" We write songs. We know what we mean by them. But in a week someone else says something about it, and you can not deny it ... You put your own meaning at your own level to our songs. ") Not only the song lyrics, album cover Sgt. Pepper's which contain a variety of images also sparked interest and analysis seriously. bushy mustache its personnel soon be a role model hippie style. cultural historian Jonathan Harris interpret "a parody of a military-colored costume gala" ("brightly colored parodies of military uniforms") them as the appearance of "anti-authoritarian and anti-authoritarian" ("anti-authoritarian and anti-establishment ").

On June 25, they launched a single All You Need Is Love, to television viewers around the world in Our World (international television), a global television network that broadcast live. Appeared in the middle of Summer of Love, the song was used as the official song of flower power. Two months later, they were shocked by the news that led to the end point of their careers. Once introduced to the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, they went to Bangor to meditate. On the way, Brian Epstein's assistant Peter Brown called to say that Epstein had died. Coroner declared the death due to overdose of Epstein, but there are other rumors that say a suicide note was found among his belongings. Epstein is known is in a fragile emotional state as stressed by personal problems and conditions of work with The Beatles. He doubted that The Beatles may not extend the management contract, which will be completed in October, probably due to dissatisfaction. In addition, there are also problems regarding Seltaeb, which holds the rights sales in the United States. Epstein's death resulted in the Beatles off the handle and do not know what the future will do. Lennon said: "I am not a bad view at all about our ability to do anything other than play music and I am afraid" ("I did not have any misconceptions about our ability to do anything other than play music and I was scared.") He also commented on Epstein's death as the end of their starting point: "I know we're in trouble ... I think we are really in trouble now" ("I Knew That We were in trouble then ... I thought, We've fuckin 'had it now. ")

Magical Mystery Tour, White Album and Yellow Submarine

Magical Mystery Tour, television film soundtrack of The Beatles to come, appear in the format of a mini album (EP) (extended play disc) double with six pieces of song number at the beginning of December 1967. In the United States, 6 song titled LP was released in the same but added the single-most recent singles. Allmusic commented on the American LP version of "psychedelic voice sounds really resonates after Sgt.Pepper album and even more solid (especially the pieces of the sound of" I Am the Walrus ")" and called the five songs selected from the 1967 single "large, vibrant, and innovative ("huge, glorious, and innovative").

The album was again set new records in the United States as the biggest selling LP by Capitol in the first three weeks. Broadcast on Boxing Day (Boxing Day), the film Magical Mystery Tour is mostly directed by Paul McCartney, have less satisfactory comments from the British media. Daily Express called it "blatant rubbish" ("conspicuous waste") with the comment "a long excerpt, rough very many people who show up and down and riding the bus" ("a great deal of raw footage showing a group of people getting on, getting off, and riding on a bus. ") Meanwhile, The Daily Mail called it" a colossal conceit "(" a Colossal conceit ") and Guardian commented:" The game kind of fantasy about the moral filth, ignorance warmth and audience "(" a kind of fantasy morality play about the warmth and grossness and stupidity of the audience. ") As a result, this film can not be played in America. In January, The Beatles played extras for animated film Yellow Submarine, The Beatles in cartoon version of the fantasy. Released in June 1968, Yellow Submarine well received in addition to his music.

Then, re-released double LP, titled The Beatles are known as the White Album because the cover blank. Because the direction Epstein is no longer there, creative inspiration for the album material derived from experience with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi they call the teacher. In Rishikesh, India, where Maharishi ashram is located, the Beatles produced a lot of songs, nearly 30 songs recorded for the album. Starr returned after 10 days, which equates session like Butlins (camping holidays in the UK) and McCartney also finally come home a month later because of boredom with the Maharishi procedure. Meanwhile, Lennon and Harrison notified by the alias Yanni Alexis Mardas Magic Alex, an electronics technician that actually take advantage of the Beatles' Maharishi and had molested the girl siswinya. Hearing this, influenced Lennon and Harrison are immediately forced the group for their disbelief and go home. In his anger, Lennon wrote a song called Maharishi, but changed to Sexie Sadie. McCartney said: "We made a mistake. We think there is more than in him. (" We made a mistake. We thought there was more to him than there was. ")

The album recording sessions that started from late May until mid-October 1968, the relationship between the members of The Beatles became increasingly tenuous. Starr paused for a while, led McCartney to beat the drum in a number of songs. Another problem is the romantic relationship between John Lennon with Yoko Ono vanguard artist. Already a prior mutual agreement between the four personnel for not bringing people into the studio. Ono Lennon insisted on bringing in all his recording sessions, although Harrison was not happy. Collaboration between Lennon wrote the lyrics, McCartney is no longer done. Lennon often undervalue the creative input and McCartney composition called a "granny music" ("granny music"). Even dub Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da "granny filth" ("granny shit"). Commenting on the White Album sessions, Lennon gave final conclusions about their group "looks like you took all the songs and make it mine and Paul's ... just me and the group that supported me, Paul, and groups that support it, and I enjoy it. We broke up after it" ("It's like if you took each track off of it and made it all mine and all Paul's ... just me and a backing group, Paul and a backing group, and I enjoyed it. We broke up then.") McCartney also called session as the beginning of the split: "until that point, the world is a problem, but we no longer" as it has always been "the best thing about The Beatles" ("Up to That Point, the world was a problem, but we Were not "which had always been" the best thing about The Beatles. ") Released in November, the White Album is the first album release of The Beatles' Apple Records, a new subsidiary label Apple Corps set up by the group after returning from India, Epstein plans to meet to build an effective corporate tax (tax-effective business structure). The album sold more than 4 million copies in the United States within a month and lively songs played on American radio. Although very popular, the album had not received comments praising tone. Based on Jonathan Gould: "response to criticism ... until the mixture varies from flat. Contrast with Sgt.Pepper, who helped build the entire genre of rock criticism is erudite, White Album is not the slightest criticism inspired writings. Even the most sympathetic reviewer though ... not really know to make a formless outpouring of those songs. Hubert Saal of Newsweek, to see how many parody, accusing them of playing games "(" The critical response ranged from mixed to ... flat. In marked contrast to Sgt. Pepper, the which had helped to Establish an entire genre of literate rock criticism, the White Album inspired no critical writing of any note. Even the most sympathetic reviewers ... Cleary did not know what to Make of this shapeless outpouring of songs. Newsweek's Hubert Saal, citing the high Proportion of parodies, Accused the group of Their Tongues getting caught in their cheeks. ")

However, critics finally getting better. In 2003, Rolling Stone put it ranked last of the Ten Best Albums of All Time. Pitchfork praised the "great and scattered, abundant with ideas and excitement, and filled with a highly diverse array of material ... his weakness is just as important to establish the same character as its success" ("large and Sprawling, overflowing with ideas but also with Indulgences, and filled with a hugely variable array of material ... its failings are as essential to its character as its triumphs. ") Allmusic commented:" Actually, the two main characters of The Beatles song writer no longer see eye to eye, but it is different with George and Ringo "(" Cleary, The Beatles' two games songwriting forces were no longer on the same page, but George and Ringo were Neither ")," Lennon created the two best pieces ballad "(" Lennon turns in two of his best ballads ") , McCartney songs by "stunning" ("stunning"), Harrison seems to have become "a songwriter who deserves the news" ("a songwriter WHO Wider deserved exposure") and the composition of the Starr "a joy" ("a delight") .

From now on, interest in the lyrics of The Beatles had become a serious matter. When the song "Revolution" written by Lennon was released as a single in August, ahead of White Album, the message was clear: "clear the mind" ("free your mind"), and "defeat" ("count me out"), means that the destruction is a tool to get a goal. But the White Album version of the song, "Revolution 1", there is the addition of the word "count me out ... in", as signifying the change of feeling. But in fact the single was recorded after the White Album Revolution and some have argued that the words they begin to justify political violence

Yellow Submarine LP was finally released in January 1969, contains four songs that were not released, those main song Yellow Submarine, (already included in the Revolver), the song All You Need is Love (released as a single and LP Magical Mystery Tour in the U.S.) and 7 instrumental music is composed by Martin. Due to lack of novelty in this album, Allmusic called it "less necessary" ("inessential") exception Harrison song, It's All Too Much, which was praised as "the jewel of the new songs ... resplendent with the swirling Mellotron, Very fast percussion and reverse current tidal wave of guitar virtuoso ... a journey into another psikedelia obscure "(" the jewel of the new songs ... Resplendent in swirling Mellotron, larger-than-life percussion, and tidal waves of feedback guitar ... a virtuoso excursion into otherwise Hazy psychedelia ".)

Abbey Road, Let It Be and division

Although Let It Be was the last album the Beatles, most of the songs were recorded before the execution Let It Be. Actually be titled Get Back, Let It Be came from Martin for McCartney's idea: to prepare the new material and "display directly in front of an audience for the first time - in the recording and the film. In other words make the album directly from the new material that has not been done before "(" perform it before a live audience for the very first time-on record and on film. In other words make a live album of new material, the which no one had ever done before. ") Most of the material processed during the studio many hours as recorded on film by [Michael Lindsay-Hogg]]. Martin said that reherseal and recording carried along in January 1969 was "not a pleasant experience at all. It was a time when relations between the Beatles hit bottom" ("not at all ... a happy experience. It was a time when relations Between the Beatles were at lowest ebb Their. ") Annoyed by the attitude of Lennon and McCartney, Harrison quit for a week. He returned to the keyboard player Billy Preston who participated in the last 10 days of recording sessions and were given credit on the single Get Back-musicians other than the Beatles are the only one authorized to receive such recognition in their albums. The Beatles failed to reach an agreement to select the location of the concert by rejecting some concepts such as on board a ship, the deserts of Tunisia and the Colosseum. Finally, direct their last show, along with Preston was filmed on the roof of the Apple Corps building at 3 Savile Row, London on January 30, 1969.

The technician called Glyn Johns worked for months to help the album Get Back while at the same time each personnel take care of everything else. The conflict peaked again related to the need for a financial adviser after the death of Epstein. Lennon, Harrison and Starr would prefer Allen Klein who also manage the contract for The Rolling Stones and other British music groups in the United States. McCartney wants John Eastman, sister Linda Eastman (later McCartney married on March 12, eight days before the wedding Lennon and Yoko Ono). There is no agreement, so both are appointed, but the problem more and more.

George Martin was surprised when McCartney contacted him to produce another album, since the Get Back sessions was like "unpleasant experience" ("a Miserable experience") and said "the end of the road from us all ... they have become people who are not nice-to themselves and others "(" thought it was the end of the road for all of us ... They were unpleasant people-to Becoming Themselves as well as to other people. ") Abbey Road recording sessions began in late February. Lennon Martin rejected the proposed format for the concept of "pieces of music that move continuously" ("a continuously moving piece of music"), and wants his own ideas for the songs on the album McCartney put separate. format produced by the end of the songs composition of the individual at the first side and second side contains a medley, the result of a compromise with McCartney. On July 4, while the album is in the process, the individual's first solo single released by Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance", with the Plastic Ono Band credit. the completion of the closing song Abbey Road "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" on August 20, 1969 was the last time all four personnel together in the same studio. Lennon out of the group on 20 September but not announced publicly until the issues law can be resolved.

Released after 6 days the release of John, Abbey Road sold 4 million copies within two months and topped the British charts for 11 weeks. The second song, the ballad Something, also released as singles - the first song and the only work that appears on the Harrison side A of the Beatles. Abbey Road had various comments and the public accepted medley. Allmusic commented: "a fitting swan song for the group" containing "some of the greatest harmonies ever heard from a recording rock song" ("some of the greatest harmonies to be heard on any rock record".) MacDonald called it "Erratic and Often hollow ":" If it were not for the input McCartney as a designer ... Abbey Road Medley Long will lack unity and coherence equations that make it better than it really is "(" Had it not been for McCartney's input as designer of the Long Medley ... Abbey Road would lack the semblance of unity and coherence Appear That makes it better than it is. ") Martin said that this album is a personal terfavoritnya of all the album The Beatles: Lennon said the album was" competent "(" competent ") but" do not have a life in it "(" no life in it "), and once a song mocking song titled" Maxwell's Silver Hammer "by the comment" No more music Paul is an old woman "(" more of Paul's granny music ").

Recording engineer Geoff Emerick says that the replacement of vacuum tube audio mixer with a studio that produces sound bertransistor less tight, so that the four personnel got frustrated with sound that are smaller and less boom.
Get Back album is still not resolved, and the creation of a Harrison song, titled I Me Mine used as cover songs recorded on January 3, 1970. At that time, Lennon was in Denmark and did not participate. To complete the album that has now been retitled Let It Be, March Klein gave a tape recording sessions Get Back to the American producer Phil Spector.

Approach is known for his Wall of Sound, Spector had produced Lennon's solo single, recently, the Instant Karma. Phil Spector meremix, editing, and connect to overdub (add sound) of the earlier recordings are meant nuanced "live". McCartney is not satisfied with the results of Spector's work on the material, especially orkestrasinya to the song The Long and Winding Road that includes a choir and 34 game pieces in orchestral instruments. McCartney tried to stop the release of Spector's version but it did not work. Officially it was announced out of the Beatles on the 10th of April, one week before the release of his first solo album, McCartney. McCartney's recordings include a pre-release contains a statement that his decision to come out of The Beatles and his hopes for the future.

On May 8, Let It Be was produced by Spector finally released. The accompanying single, Long and Winding Road is the last single they released in the United States, but not in England. Let It Be documentary film released in the following part of the same month and the Academy Award the following year won the Academy Award for Best Original Score. The Sunday Telegraph issued a negative comment "a very bad movie and one that touches ... about a family rift which had seemed eternal brothers, calm and geometrically perfect" ("a very bad movie and a touching one ... about the breaking apart of this reassuring, geometrically perfect, once apparently Ageless family of siblings. ") More than one critic to comment on a few songs that sound better on film than on the album itself. Seeing the number of negative tone, tend mennghina, Allmusic commented: "Overall despised ... McCartney in particular produced some gems: Let It Be the gospel nuanced and contains one of his best lyrics; Get Back, one of his works of rock's most tight, and The Long and Winding Road was a melodious, but was destroyed by Spector overdub-heavy hand "(" on the whole underrated ... McCartney in particular offers Several gems: the gospel-ish "Let It Be ', the which has some of his best lyrics; 'Get Back', one of his hardest rockers; and the melodic "The Long and Winding Road ', ruined by Spector's heavy-handed overdubs.") McCartney filed a suit for the dissolution of The Beatles on December 31, 1970 . However, disputes concerning the problems in it does not expire until 1975.

After the break up (1970-present)


Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr each released solo albums in 1970, then there are times where cooperation between one or more of the former personnel. Album Ringo Starr, Ringo (1973) is the only album that contains four former composition and performance of personnel, but in a separate track. Collaborated with Starr, Harrison organized the Concert for Bangladesh in New York City in August 1971 with the Indian musician, Ravi Shankar. Apart from the jam session that was released in 1974 (later released as the title Bootleg A Toot and a snore in '74), Lennon and McCartney never recorded together again.
Two double LP's best songs of the Beatles compiled by Allen Klein, 1962-1966 and 1967-1970, was released in 1973, the first time by Apple Records. Commonly known as the Red Album and Blue Album, awarded each Multi-Platinum certification in the United States and Platinum certification in the UK. Between 1976 and 1982, EMI / Capitol released the compilation album The Beatles wave without input from former members of the band. The only album that included material that was previously terilis was The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl (1977). The first concert footage of The Beatles are officially released contains selections from the Beatles' second appearance on stage in U.S. tour between 1964 and 1965. After the international release of the original album version of English on CD in 1987, eliminating EMI compilations last - including the Hollywodd Bowl of the catalog.

Music and fame of the Beatles are still remaining commercially exploited in various ways, beyond the control of former members. All This and World War II (1976) is a non-fiction film that combines pieces of news of World War II to the soundtrack of The Beatles songs sung by other singers. Broadway musical titled Beatlemania in early 1977 staged a successful play on the nostalgia of the Beatles story. The Beatles tried to boycott the release of Live! at the Star-Club in Hamburg, Germany; 1962 but failed. The album contains a compilation of recordings made at the time they're performing in Hamburg, but recorded with a tape from a recorder using a microphone. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1978), a musical film featuring the Bee Gees and Peter Frampton, failed in the market and are considered "artistic failure" ("artistic fiasco"). In 1979, all former members of The Beatles' producer Beatlemania demanded and received compensation of one million dollars. Harrison commented "People think the Beatles as the public domain. You can not just pinch material The Beatles" ("People were just thinking the Beatles were like public domain. You can not just go around pilfering of the Beatles' material.")


Lennon was shot and died on December 8, 1980 in New York City. As a personal greeting, Harrison wrote All Those Years Ago, a song about his time with The Beatles that was recorded before Lennon's death. With his wife Linda, McCartney contributed backing vocals, and Starr on drums. The song is sung with new lyrics and re-released as a single in May 1981. Individual works of McCartney, Here Today, appears in the album Tug of War in April 1982. In 1987, Harrison released the album titled album containing the Cloud Nine When We Was Fab, a song that tells the days of Beatlemania.

The Beatles enshrined in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988. Harrison and Starr attended the ceremony along with Lennon's widow, Yoko Ono and sons Julian and Sean. McCartney comes off with a press conference, "After 20 years, The Beatles still have a lot of difference in matters which I hope can be resolved from now on. Unfortunately, they do not want to, so I feel like a hypocrite who waved and smiled at them in a fake reunion "(" After 20 years, The Beatles still have some business differences the which I had hoped would have been settled by now. Unfortunately, They have not been, so I would feel like a complete Hypocrite waving and smiling with them at a fake reunion . ") The next year, EMI / Capitol to grant the demands of the Beatles who have decades of royalty and the official labeling of the material that was previously terilis.


Live at the BBC, which contains the first official release of The Beatles' performances are not released in the last 17 years, finally appeared in 1994. In the same year, McCartney, Harrison and Starr reunite for The Beatles Anthology project, which has actually been done by the end of the 1960s by Neil Aspinall. Initially as a travel manager and then personal assistant to The Beatles, Aspinall began collecting material for a documentary film after he became a director of Apple Corps in 1968. Documenting the history of the Beatles, this project involves the release of many records are not released; McCartney, Harrison and Starr also added a couple of games of new instruments and vocals to 2 tracks demo Lennon recorded in the late 1970s. In 1995 and 1996, the project produced five television series, video volume-8 and 3 CD box set (containing 2). Lennon's two-song demo, Free as a Bird and Real Love each released again as a single. Box CD includes the work of Klaus Voorman, the creator of the cover of Revolver album in 1966. Sales reached a large kesukesasan and television series have been viewed more than 400 million people around the world.


1, a compilation album of any song number one in the charts of Great Britain and the United States was released on November 13, 2000. The album became the fastest selling album of all time, in the first week reached 3.6 million copies and more than 12 million copies in three weeks worldwide. In 28 countries, occupying the album charts at number one, including the United Kingdom and the United States. On April 2009, the album has sold over 31 million copies and became the decade's best-selling album in the United States.

Harrison died of lung cancer on 29 November 2001. McCartney and Starr together with other musicians join Concert for George held organized by Eric Clapton and Harrison's widow, Olivia. The concert was held at the Royal Albert Hall in a one-year anniversary of Harrison's death. In addition to the songs composed for The Beatles and his solo career, the concert also included traditional Indian music like Harrison and influence the color of the music of The Beatles. In 2003, Let It Be ... Naked, a new version of Let It Be done McCartney. One of the main differences with the original album is the removal of original arrangements of stringed instrument. This album entered the top 10 in the charts in Britain and the United States.

The Beatles used the song as a soundtrack of Cirque du Soleil Las Vegas. George Martin and son Giles meremix and connect 130 pieces of footage of The Beatles to produce an album titled Love, by way of "reviving all musical periods peridoe The Beatles in a very short" ("a way of re-living the whole Beatles' musical lifespan in a very condensed period "). The show officially opened in June 2006 and the album Love was released in November. McCartney and Starr attended a year of events and appeared on Larry King Live with Ono and Olivia Harrison. In 2007, McCartney reportedly intends to complete the Now and Then, the third Lennon demo is done in the Anthology sessions. The work will be credited with the composition of the Lennon / McCartney with the addition of the new version, and also includes songs with drum beating by Starr and Harrison record a guitar.
In March 2008, the Beatles' lawyers appointed to prevent the distribution of recordings of performances are not terilis Starr during his first show at The Star Club, Hamburg in 1962. In November, McCartney discussed the desire for the Carnival of Light, a 14-minute experimental recording of the Beatles recorded at Abbey Road studios in 1967 to be released officially. McCartney held a charity concert on April 4, 2009 at Radio City Music Hall for the David Lynch Foundation, with the appearance of various musicians, including Starr. The Beatles: Rock Band, a video game Rock Band music from the series was released on September 9, 2009. On the same day, 12 pieces of original Beatles album that has been polished, Magical Mystery Tour and Past Masters compilations were released simultaneously.


Mempengruhi musicians that The Beatles were initially include Elvis Presley, Little Richard and Chuck Berry, who sang birthday songs more often than the work of other musicians in their performances-performances. At one place to stay with Little Richard at the Star Club Hamburg from April to May 1962, he advised them to bring the songs with a more precise technique. About Elvis, Lennon said, "Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis. If no Elvis, there would not be The Beatles" ("Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis. If there hadn't been Elvis, there would not have been The Beatles ".) Other influences come from Buddy Holly, Eddie Cochran, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison and The Everly Brothers. The Beatles continue to absorb influences from other musicians long after they get kesukesan early, often finding ways to write music and lyrics that are new to listen to their works such as Bob Dylan, Frank Zappa, The Byrds and The Beach Boys, with his 1966 album entitled Pet Sounds amaze and inspire McCartney. Martin said, "without Pet Sounds, Sgt Pepper will not be created ... Pepper was an attempt to equal Pet Sounds" ("Without Pet Sounds, Sgt. Pepper would not have happened ... Pepper was an attempt to equal Pet Sounds." )


Starting from a skiffle band, The Beatles then played the music genre of rock and roll the 1950's as well as a variety of pop music. Because of the breadth of musical styles they play, Lennon commented on the album Beatles for Sale: "You can call our new album a country-and LP-Western Beatles" ("You could call our new one is a Beatles' country-and-western LP" ), while Allmusic specifically praised the album Rubber Soul as a major influence in the folk music movement of the rock. Beginning with the use of a quartet of stringed instrument in the song Yesterday, they began to incorporate elements of classical music.

Other musical genres began to be given in 1966 through the song B-side on the single entitled Paperback Writer Rain, defined by Martin Strong's Great Rock Discography in the as "the first overtly psychedelic Beatles' record" ("first-born psychedelic shades of Beatles recordings" ). Among other psychedelic numbers began to be recorded as Tomorrow Never Knows, Strawberry Fields Forever, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, and I Am the Walrus. Influence of traditional Indian music appeared in songs that made Harrison such as Love You To and Within You Without You, which, according to Gould, "to replicate the body form in miniature". ("Mimics exercise in miniature").

The White Album increasingly apparent complexity and variety of musical colors individually dikreasikan The Beatles, among others, is shown from the song Revolution 9, the work of musique concrete ("concrete music") which is influenced by Lennon Yoko Ono; country song entitled Do the work of Starr Pass Me By; rock ballad While My Guitar Gently Harrison Weeps; and "proto-metal" McCartney, Helter Skelter.

Contributions George Martin

The proximity of George Martin with The Beatles as a producer makes a major candidate who received informal title "fifth Beatle". (The fifth Beatle). He aims to give a touch of classical music in various ways, for example the song Yesterday, was one of his ideas. The Beatles initially less enthusiastic about the concept, but eventually becomes a profitable thing for them. According to Gould, "as Lennon and McCartney Became Progressively more Ambitious in their songwriting, Martin began to function as an informal music teacher to them" ("When Lennon and McCartney progressively more ambitious in writing song lyrics. Martin began working as a music teacher informal for them. ") This also coincides with a willingness to experiment according to their wishes - such as adding a baroque feel to a song, in other words to facilitate their creative development. In addition to arranging the orchestra, Martin also frequently contributes to play piano, organ and brass.

Commenting on the recording Sgt. Pepper, Martin said, "'Sergeant Pepper' Itself did not Appear until halfway through making the album. It was Paul's song, just an ordinary rock number and not particularly brilliant as songs go ... Paul said, 'Why do not we make-the album as though the band Pepper really existed, as though Sergeant Pepper was making the record? We'll dub in effects and Things. ' I loved the idea, and from That moment on it was as though Pepper had a life of its own. " (Sergeant Pepper itself will not appear until halfway through the album. It was a Paul song, rock songs and not enough common interest such as the other songs ... Paul said, 'why do not we make the album as if the band Pepper really exist, as if Sergeant Pepper who made the tape? We'll add dub effects and other things. "I like the idea and from since then as if Pepper had his own life.") Considering how powerful it is compared to the composition of the Lennon song, Martin said: "Compared with Paul's songs, all of the which seemed to keep in some sort of touch with reality, John's had a psychedelic, almost Mystical quality ... John's imagery is one of the best Things about his work, "tangerine trees", "marmalade skies", "cellophane flowers" ... I always saw him as an aural Salvador Dalí, rather than some drug-ridden artist record. On the other hand, I would be stupid to pretend That figure did not quite Heavily drugs in the Beatles' lives at that time. At the same time They Knew That I, in my role schoolmasterly, did not approve ... Not only was I not into it myself, I could not see the need for it; and there's no doubt that, if I too had been on dope, Pepper would never have been the album it was .

Compared with the songs Paul, all of his work seems to establish touch with reality, psychedelic track character John, almost mystical quality ... The parable of John is one of the best in his work-in-"tangerine trees", "marmalade skies", "cellophane flowers" .. . I always see him as Salvador Dali aural, rather than a recording artist who is addicted to narcotics. On the other hand, I must be stupid if you pretend not to know that narcotics are not also a big influence in the life of The Beatles at the time. At the same time they know that, in its role as principal, I do not agree ... Not only would I not use it, I do not see any need for it; is real, if I'm too addicted, Pepper will never be a great album. ")

Studio Abbey Road (2007)

In the studio

The Beatles use of innovative technologies and treat the studio as an instrument itself. They asked Martin and recording engineers to experiment or try new things that "might be able to produce good sound". At the same time they also take advantage of certain events, such as creative guitar feedback unintended resonance glass bottles or sound tapes being played backwards. Things like this are supported by the cold hand of Martin and EMI engineers such as Norman Smith, Ken Townsend and Geoff Emerick who all contributed a great deal from the album Rubber Soul, Revolver and especially so on. With a lot of sense in the studio sound effects available methods, unusual microphone placement, recording tape, double tracking and vari speed. They also combine stringed instrument, brass, and musical instruments like the sitar India (can be heard on the song Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)) and swarmandal (in the song Strawberry Fields Forever). They also use electronic instruments such as mellotron (the intro to Strawberry Fields Forever) and clavioline (in the song Baby, You're a Rich Man).

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