Cleopatra VII of Egypt

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII Philopator ,Cleopatra VII: January 69 BC - August 12, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Although many other Egyptian queen who uses his name, he was generally known by the name Kleopatra, and all the predecessors of the same name is almost forgotten.

He is the ruler of Egypt with her father Ptolemy XII, as well as the brother of her husband: Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, and finally his son Caesarion. Cleopatra overcame that coup was designed by his brother's supporters in alliance with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony continued. Cleopatra had a son of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony three children of the (two of which are twins).
Cleopatra committed suicide when Augustus (Octavian) and attacked the Egyptian throne, by inserting his hands into a basket full of poisonous snakes (Asp / Cobra kind of North African origin). His life story is often dramatized in various forms of work, including "Antony and Cleopatra" from William Shakespeare and some modern film.


Little is known about childhood Cleopatra, but Cleopatra blooded Greek, not Egyptian. He was born at the beginning of the year 69 BC, the third child of six people and was born in the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty. He has two older brothers and a sister and two younger brothers. He was born and raised in Alexandria which is the largest and most luxurious city at that time.
Kingdom of Cleopatra's father is not safe due to the pressures and conflicts from outside and the power struggles and conflicts in such centralization of government and political corruption. This led the rebellion and the loss of Cyprus and Cyrenaica which causes the reign of Ptolemy as one of the most deadly in the dynasty. As a child, Cleopatra has seen disputes within his own family. It is said that his father survived two assassination attempts when seoragn servant found a deadly poisonous snake in her bed and wine tasting servant his master the servant who subsequently died. Eldest sister, Tryphaena also tried to poison Cleopatra, so she began using tastemakers. When he was a teenager, he witnessed the fall of his own father and his father became a puppet of the Roman Empire due to the debt burden is too high, but still hoped that the Romans did not conquer Egypt. Circumstances that led to Ptolemy XII of the people expelled from Alexandria who eventually fled to the Romans. In 58 BC, his mother, Cleopatra V takes over the government with his son, Berenice IV with the help of the Roman governor of Syria ruled, Aulus Gabinius for a year until her mother died, and Berenice IV ruled alone. Ptolemy XII overthrow the oldest daughter in the year 55 BC and executed her son, Berenice IV. Cleopatra's other older sister, Tryphaena took the throne and not long before he died which left Cleopatra with her husband and her brother, Ptolemy XIII as a successor to the throne.
From his father, Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra knew the power of his ancestors. Conquests of his ancestors had done nearly three centuries ago.

Ascended the throne

Ptolemy XII died in March of 51 BC, making Cleopatra who was then aged about 18 years and Ptolemy XIII who was about 12 years as joint leaders. First 3 years of their reign were difficult because of economic problems, famine, flooding of the Nile and political conflict. Although Cleopatra married her brother, he shows that he has no desire to share power with him.


In August of 51 BC, their relationship is broken. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and his face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition that female rulers being subordinate to men. This results in a secret group of people who are not included in the palace, led by the eunuch Pothinus, lowering Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy leaders in 48 BC (or earlier, and there is a decree in 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). He tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was forced to flee Egypt with her only surviving sister, Arsinoë.

Back to the throne

When Cleopatra out of Egypt, Pompey engaged in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Julius Caesar to Alexandria and seek asylum. Ptolemy was then aged 15 years and waited for his arrival. On 28 September 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his officers that the former now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship he had just disembarked. Ptolemy thought that he had ordered the death of Julius Caesar Pompey for fun. This is a big mistake Ptolemy. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy gives the head of Pompey. Caesar seeing that it was very angry because of the fact that although he was the political enemy of Caesar, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Julis Caesar child, Julia. Caesar controlled the capital of Egypt and made it the arbiter of claims between Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

Cleopatra took this opportunity and return to the palace and meet with Caesar. It is believed that Caesar was charmed by the gesture, and she became his mistress. 9 months after their first meeting, Cleopatra gave birth to a baby. At this time, Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a short civil war, Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile Cleopatra and Caesar returns to his throne, with his younger brother Ptolemy XIV as the other new deputy leader.

Cleopatra's relationship with Julius Caesar

Although differences in the age of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar for 30 years, Cleopatra and Caesar became lovers during Caesar was in Egypt in 48 BC to 47 BC. They met when Cleopatra was 21 years old and 50-year-old Caesar. On June 23, 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to Ptolemy Caesar (nicknamed "Caesarion" which means "little Caesar"). Cleopatra claimed Caesar as his father and hopes to make the child as an heir, but Caesar refused and preferred grandson, Octavian. Caesarion was the intended inheritor of Egypt and Rome, uniting east and west.

Cleopatra and Caesarion visited Rome between 47 BC and 41 BC and was present when Caesar was killed on March 15, 44 BC. Before or after the murder, he returned to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died due to deteriorating health, Cleopatra made Caesarion his successor. To keep and Caesarion, her sister Arsinoe died.

Relationship with Mark Antony Cleopatra

Anthony and Cleopatra, made by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
In 42 BC, Mark Antony, one of the people in power in Rome after Caesar's death, summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus to answer questions about her loyalty. Alluring Cleopatra and Antony arrived that caused Anthony spent the winter of 41 BC-40 BC with her in Alexandria. On December 25, 40 BC, she gave birth to two children, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II.

Four years later, in 37 BC, Antony visited Alexandria again to war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra, and from then on Alexandria would be his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this), even though he was married to Octavia Minor at the time.

He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The Donations of Alexandria in 34 BC, following Antony of Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus. Alexander Helios became the leader of Armenia, Media, and Parthia; Cleopatra Selene II to the leader of Cyrenaica and Libya. Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Sicily. Cleopatra also received the title of "Queen of the King".

Antony's behavior was considered outrageous by the Romans, and Octavian convinced the Senate to go to war with Egypt. In the year 31 BC, Anthony troops against attacks from the Roman fleet on the coast of Actium. With the battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt. With no other refugees who fled, Anthony committed suicide with his sword menusukan on August 12, 30 BC.


Picture of the death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur.
Mark Anthony committed suicide which led to Cleopatra also committed suicide. It is unknown how he died, but according to legend, he took the decision to commit suicide after he realized that he had failed to achieve its objectives. He died from being bitten by a poisonous snake let himself be inserted into the basket of figs. In the last seconds of his death, he expressed his destiny as a goddess.

Child Cleopatra, Caesarion as pharaoh of Egypt claims, but Octavian wins first. Caesarion was captured and executed, his fate reportedly locked by Octavian famous words: "Two of Caesar too many." This completes the line of the Egyptian pharaoh. Three children of Cleopatra and Antony forgiven and taken back to Rome and they were treated by Anthony's wife, Octavia Minor.

Servant Cleopatra, Iras and Charmion also committed suicide. Anthony's daughter, Octavia forgiven and also his son, Anthony Iullus. His eldest son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, was killed while begging for his life in Caesarium.

Cleopatra in popular culture

Cleopatra's story has been amazing writer and artist. In addition he was a powerful political figure, he also appeared as a man who can be aligned with the two most powerful men (Julius Caesar and Mark Antony) on time. He appears in both books, movies, novels, drama, video games, painting and television series. For example in the drama Antony and Cleopatra in 1609 made by William Shakespeare. The first film is related to Cleopatra Antony and Cleopatra with Florence Lawrence as Cleopatra. The first film on the subject of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, starring Helen Gardner. Many artists are also making Cleopatra as the object of his paintings, for example, Guido Cagnacci a painting of Cleopatra's death in 1658

Leave a Reply