Biography of Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (Poitiers, October 15, 1926-Paris, June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, intellectual, critic, and sociologist. During his life, he held the chair position at the Collège de France, for his work entitled History of systems of thought (History of Systems of Thought), and also teaches at the University of California Berkeley.

Foucault is best known for its sharp research in the field of social institutions, especially psychiatry, medicine, humanities and the prison system, and his works on the history of the examine  sexuality. his work power and the relationship between power, knowledge and discourse has been widely debated. In the 60's Foucault is often associated with the structuralist movement. Foucault later distanced himself from the movement of thought. Although often dikarekterisasikan as a postmodernist, Foucault always rejected the label post-structuralist and postmodernist.


Foucault thought greatly influenced Nietzsche, but he was not entirely as a follower of Nietzsche, for him, Nietzsche was a person who attended the original, so anything with him to be original with his personal views. In fact he often disagreed with the philosopher adored it. It is found in Foucault's theory of Genealogy. Here, the language of Foucault can not be contained in the "what is written" and "what is the interpretation", the two are intertwined without separation. This is one of his thoughts on the subject and object, that the written language and its interpretation can not be separated in the subject and object. Both are scattered without any basis, without structured by default.

About the subject and object, the philosopher of the 60s is a philosopher who celebrate the death of the subject (beginning beings) are aligned with God. Then after that, if God's death, the man who followed God mati.Sebab man who followed God has no power over him without a God who gives meaning to her. So from here the philosophy that had been struggling on humanism was over.

Then the new man could be 'resurrected' again. But Foucault himself grieving for the loss of meaning as the loss of the subject (God) earlier.
Subject by subject Foucautl parallel to the individual can only be explored through the power. Then her own power is not a nominalist, not rigid and can not be held, he is the lawyer's words from the multiplicity and interwoven forces. Power is not something that can be owned, even by the once dominant, can not be affected by the fullness of the law or truth, he is not subject to the normal political theory, can not be reduced by the representation of [the law]]. Then the relationship between the subject and the power is not actors and products.

It was not the subject (substantively) are created power, but kekuasaanlah that affect the subject, and its nature is not fixed like the invention (founding subject). Similarly, humans also ultimately affected by the rule, not the power of human influence. Ultimately the subject even nullify the freedom and subjectivity. That way, freedom and a new subjectivity will be offered by it. What kind of freedom, the freedom to always be able to control the power and the will on the subject that it generates.

Definition of power and the will was later used by, one by setting the life of sexuality in Europe at the time of Queen Victoria I (1819-1901) Since the Queen is very dominant in controlling the people, he also set up little things from people. Sexuality that is free to be separated from the decency in Europe.

Here it appears that the powers that be interpreted by Foucault associated with it will be constrained by system pemerintahan.Pemikiran nature of this mechanism is expressed by him as being effective, not mystical as he offered fenomenologi.Menurut, lack of phenomenology can be answered by science ( study of man, for example, psychology). But this would also recognized him as a mere deception, together with the investigation filosofis.Akhirnya he decided to return to the post-Enlightenment Descartes in the 17th century, when men like dialogue and madness. Madness which he means the medical field, this fits with his experience working in the Mental Hospital.

The works written

Madness and Civilization
The Birth of the Clinic
Death and The Labyrinth
The Order of Things
The Archaeology of Knowledge
Discipline and Punish
The History of Sexuality


At age 25 he received the Aggregation and in 1952 obtained a Diploma in psychology. In 1950 he worked at the Mental Hospital in 1955 and taught at the University of Uppsala, [Sweden]]. His first work entitled Madness and Ketidakbernalaran: History of the Classical Period, presented to pursue his doctorate in 1959 under the guidance of Georges Canguilhem. The work is then published in 1961. In 1970, he was appointed professor of History of Thought Systems in France. He died in 1984.
Chronologically, the journey of life Foucault can be seen as follows:

1926 born with the name of Paul-Michel Foucault

1936-register at Lycee Henry IV in Pitiers

1940 enrolled at College St. Stanislas, a Jesuit school both

1945 studied in Paris at the Lycee Henry IV remedy-entrance exams to prepare for the Ecole Normale Superiure, philosophical thinking by Jean Hyppolite

1945 admitted to the Ecole Normale Superiure, where he received a license of philosophy (1948), licensing philosophy (1949) and agragasi philosophy (1952)

1952 at the Faculté des Lettres work, at the University of Lille, received a Diploma in Psycho-Pathology of the Institute of Psychology in Paris

1955-1958 teaching at the University of Uppsala, Sweden

1959 served as director of the Warsaw University Centre in France

1960 to teach psychology at the University of Clermont-Ferrand

1961 received a doctorate, with the works, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique, Antropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht

1962 became professor of philosophy at the University of Clermont-Ferrand
1966 visiting professor at the University of [Tunisia]

1967 was selected as a professor at the University of Paris, in Naterre, but returned to Tunisia when the education minister of the election was delayed ratigikasi

1968 served as head of the department of philosophy at Vincennes at the new experiment

1969 was elected at the College of France with the work "History of Systems Thinking

1970 attended his first lessons in the U.S. and the [Japanese]

1971 co-founded the Groupe d'information sur les Prison, an organization that criticized the conditions of [prison]] in France

1972 to make another trip to the USA, including in New York visited the prison in Attica

1973 to teach in New York, Montreal and Rio de Janeiro

1875 participated in a protest against the execution of Franco against the militancy

1976 to visit Brazil and California

1981 took part in protests against the communist movement in Poland and the government supports the solidarity

1983 taught at the University of California at Berkeley as part of a deal to visit there every year

1984 died in Paris on June 25th

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