Niccolo Machiavelli Biography,The Politicians of Italy

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli (born in Florence, Italy, May 3, 1469 - died in Florence, Italy, June 21, 1527 at age 58 years) is an Italian diplomat and politician who was also a philosopher. As a theorist, Machiavelli was a major figure in the reality of political theory, he is highly respected in Europe in the Renaissance. Two of his famous book, Discorsi sopra la prima deca in Tito Livio (Discourses of Livio) and Il Principe (The Prince), originally written as the government hopes to improve conditions in northern Italy, later became common in the political book of the time.

Il Principe, or Prince outlines actions that can or needs to be done by a person to obtain or maintain power.

Machiavelli's name, then associated with a bad thing, to justify the means to achieve goals. People who commit such acts are called makiavelis.
Machiavelli's works not only in politics, but also history, namely, History of Florence, Discourse on the First Decade of Titus Livius, A Life of Castruccio Castrancani, and History of the Affair of Lucca. In the field of literature, he once wrote a clone of the Golden Ass of Apuleius, the play Mandragola, and Seven Books on the Art of War. Of course, among his works the best known is The Prince (1932).

The main issues in this book is that all goals can be cultivated to build and preserve power as the ultimate goal that can be justified. And the worst act of betrayal is justified by the evil ruler of the governed. The Prince is expressly prohibited by Pope Clement VIII. More works by Machiavelli in Italian include; Discorso sopra le cose in Pisa (1499), Del modo in trattare i Popoli della Valdichiana ribellati (1502), Del Duca Valentino dal modo tenuto Nell 'ammazzare Vitellozo Vitelli, Oliverotto da Fermo (1502 ), Discorso sopra la del danaro provisione (1502), Decennale primo (1506 terza rima in poema), Ritratti dell'Alemagna delle cose (1508-1512), Decennale Secondo (1509), Ritratti delle cose di Francia (1510), Discorsi sopra la prima deca in Tito Livio (1512-1517), Il Principle (1513), Andria (1517), Mandragola (1518), Della lingua (1514), Clizia (1525), Belfagor arcidiavolo (1515), asino d'oro (1517), dell'arte della guerra (1519-1520), Discorso riformare sopra il lo stato di Firenze (1520), Sommario della citta delle cose in Lucca (1520), in castruccio Castracani Vita da Lucca (1520), Istorie fiorentine (1520-1525), and Frammenti storici (1525).

Machiavelli's works resulted in many people who put him as one of the brilliant thinkers in the Renaissance, as well as a slightly tragic figure. Machiavelli thought flourished in the 16th century and the 17th so that his name is always associated tortuous, cruel, and destructive of rational desires fulfilled. There is no thinker who is always misunderstood than Machiavelli. Misunderstandings are mainly rooted in his work entitled The Prince that provides methods to obtain and secure political power. In addition, there are also many other works to which reference Discourses on the Ten Books of Titus Livy.

There are three different views of Machiavelli's views of their works. The first view, stating that Machiavelli is a teacher of evil or at least teach immoralism and amoralism. This view was expressed by Leo Strauss (1957) because of the teachings of Machiavelli look away from the value of justice, compassion, wisdom, and love, and more likely to teach cruelty, violence, fear, and oppression.

The second view, a more moderate flow spearheaded by Benedetto Croce (1925) who saw Machiavelli merely a realist or a pragmatist who saw no use of ethics in politics. The third Padangan pioneered by Ernst Cassirer (1946), who understand the mind as something scientific Machiavelli and the way a scientist thinks. Can be described as the "Galileo of politics" in distinguishing between political facts and moral values ​​(Between the facts of political life and the values ​​of moral judgment).

Innovation Machiavelli Discourses on Livy in book and The Prince is to separate the political theory of ethics. This was in opposition to the western tradition of studying political theory and policy are closely linked with ethics like Aristotle who defines politics as an extension of ethics. In view of the west, political and understood in terms of right and wrong, fair and unfair. Measures used to evaluate the morality of human actions in the political field. At that time, Machiavelli had to use the term la stato, which is derived from the Latin status, which refers to the existing and the passage of power in the sense of the force, do not use the term refers Dominium more private power.

Medieval books give confidence that the use of political power is justified only if it is owned by people who have the character meets the noble values. If you want peace and power-holders remain in office, shall act in accordance with good standards and ethics. They will only be adhered to throughout the show fulfillment of moral values.

Machiavelli was the first to discuss the political and social phenomena without reference to the sources of ethical or legal. This is the first approach that is purely scientific to the political. For Machiavelli, politics is only concerned with one thing only, namely gain and maintain power. Other things, such as religion and morality, which has been linked with politics does not have a fundamental relationship with politics, except that the religious and moral help to gain and maintain political. Expertise needed to get and conserve power is calculated. A politician knows exactly what to do or what to say in every situation.

Machiavelli recognizes that good laws and good armies are the basis for a good political system tatatan. However, because coercion can create the legality, he focuses attention on the force. Because there will not be good laws without good arms, then Machiavelli would only talk about guns. In other words, the law as a whole rests on the threat of force to force. Authority is not possible if detached from the power to compel. Therefore, Machiavelli concludes that the fear is always appropriate to be used, as well as violence that can effectively control the legality. Someone will obey only out of fear of the consequences, both loss of life or property. Machiavelli's arguments intended to show that the overall political supremacy of the rule can be defined as the force. Authority is a right to govern.

The Prince described the ways in which an individual can obtain and maintain state power. Social and political situation in the book is portrayed in a very unpredictable and volatile. Only a great man with a calculating mind to conquer the political and social conditions. Machiavelli's rejection of ethical judgment in the cause of political thought called renaissance of thought is anti-Christ.

Image of Machiavelli who oppose church authority was also seen in the Discourse of the book clearly states that humans weakens the conventional Christianity of the power necessary to become an active civil society. Prince is also contained in the humiliation, in addition to respect, to the condition of the church and the papacy at that time. These views led to several authors such as Machiavelli Sullivan (1996) and Anthony Parel (1992) argues that Machiavelli was pagan religions such as ancient Roman society.

To understand Machiavelli's thinking, the state should not be considered in an ethical standpoint, but with a medical standpoint. At that time, Italy is suffering and miserable, while the Florentine in great danger. For that country must be made to be strong but not by the medical ethical approach. Betrayed the people who had to be amputated before infecting the whole country (seditious people should be amputated before They infect the whole state). Machiavelli sees politics as battlefield conditions that must be conquered.
Value (Virtu), in Machiavelli understood as individuals who have the ability to fulfill his desire in a social situation will change through strong, strength, and the calculation and a brilliant strategy. In fact, for the love of a woman (Fortune), a king who does not ask or beg idela, but it took a physical and do whatever he wants. The scandal represents a very strong human potential in the political field.

Virtu, Machiavelli is the conception of personal qualities needed by a king to manage his country and increase his power. King must have the highest quality of virtu, even if it needed to be able to act very evil. To be a person who has the quality of virtu, the king must be flexible (flexible disposition). People who are fit to hold power by Machiavelli is someone who can perform various actions from good to bad. Therefore, the meaning of virtu is all things related to power. Virtu authorities are required to have competence to exercise power. Virtu has meant having the power over all the rules relating to exercise power effectively. Virtu is a political power.

Another conception that links between Virtu the effective exercise of power is Fortuna. Fortuna is the enemy of the political order, a threat to the safety and security of the country. The use of the concept of fortuna this raises a lot of debate. Conventionally, fortuna interpreted as friendliness, something soft and harmless, but also the nature of divinity changing as well as the source of the goodness of human evil. While Machiavelli's fortuna interpreted as a source of envy and human misery can not be tolerated (uncomprommising fount of human misery), suffering and misfortune. If fortuna determine the progress of mankind, then no one can act effectively to deal with the divine.

He described fortuna like "one of our destructive river, which at the time of anger will turn the land into the lake, breaking down trees and buildings, taking the world from one point and put it on another point; all the people fled before the flood; all people and not anger Nobody can resist "(one of our destructive rivers which, when it is angry, turn the plains into lakes, throws down the trees and buildings, takes earth from one spot, puts it in another; everyone flees before the flood; everyone yields to its fury and nowhere can it Repel). Anger and does not mean that disaster is beyond human power. Before the rain arrives, it is still possible to do something to divert or alter the consequences. The picture is dikemukanan by Machiavelli to indicate that fortuna can be overcome by man, but must be with the preparation of the Virtu and policies.

Political success depends on the appreciation of the passage of fortuna. Machiavelli taught that experience is a better move fast (impetuous) than cautious, because Fortuna is a woman and needed to put them under us, to confuse and abuse him. In other words, fortuna demanded violent response from those who want to control it.
If the book raises the Prince much debate, it is not the case with the book Discourses on the Ten Books of Titus Livy that many experts considered to represent the commitment and personal political beliefs Machiavelli, especially against the republic. In all his work, Machiavelli consistently divide the order of civil and political life to be minimal and that is affecting the achievement of a full life together.

Minimal constitutional order in which the subject is living with a safe (Vivere sicuro), governed by a strong government that constantly monitor the development of nobles and citizens, but offset by other institutional and legal mechanisms. While the full constitutional order, political order is for the purpose of civil liberties (Vivere libero) is actively created by the participation and interaction between the nobility and the people.
During his career as a secretary and diplomat in the Florentine Republic, Machiavelli gain experience in the core French government that in his view is the minimal constitutional models (the "secure" [but not free] polity). Machiavelli saw the kingdom of France and King have a dedication to the law. He stated that the kingdom is the kingdom of France at the time the best legal arrangement. French king and the nobles of the ruling is controlled by the rule of law is conducted by an independent authority of parliament. Therefore, the chance of an uncontrollable act of tyranny that can be eliminated.

How good arrangement and compliance with the law in such a regime, in the view of Machiavelli is not in accordance with Vivere libero. Throughout there is the will of the public to gain their freedom, which can not meet the king should examine what can make them become free. He concluded that some individuals want freedom just to be able to govern others. In contrast, the majority of the majority of the confusion between freedom and security, imagining that they are identical. But there is also a desire the freedom to live in security purposes (Vivere sicuro). Machiavelli then stated that the people live in security (Vivere sicuro) for no other reason than the king that the law is bound to provide security for all citizens. Compliance with the legal character of the French regime is to ensure security, but security should not be mixed if necessary with freedom. This limitation of the rule of the monarchy, even the most good for the kingdom, will not be able to guarantee its people could be governed by the calm and orderly

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