History of Asoka...

Ashoka the Great is the ruler of the Mauryan Empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A Buddhist, Asoka controlled most of the Indian subcontinent, from what is now called Bangladesh and Afghanistan to the south as far as Mysore.

The name "Ashoka" means "without sorrow" in Sanskrit (a - without, soft-shelled - sorrow). Asoka was the first leader of Bharata (India) Ancient, after the leaders of the famous Mahabharata, which unites this vast territory under his empire, which even exceeded the limits of the sovereignty of India today.

Early life

Maurya emperor Ashoka was the son, the emperor Bindusara of a concubine who rank rather low and was named Dharma. Ashoka had several brothers and one sister, Witthasoka. Because of his ability to emulate and his ability to fight, he said was his grandfather's favorite grandchild, Candragupta Maurya emperor. So as told in the form of the legend, when Candragupta Maurya left his empire to life as a Jain, he threw away his sword. Ashoka found the sword and save it. gas

The road to power

So while it developed into a perfect brilliant soldier and a shrewd statesman, Ashoka Maurya army led several regimens. The rise in popularity across the empire made his elder brothers became jealous because they are worried he could be selected Bindusara be the next emperor. Her brother is the oldest, Susima prince, crown prince of the first, to persuade Bindusara to send Asoka to deal with a rebellion in the town of Taxila, in the northwestern province of Sindhu, where the prince Susima was governor. Taxila is a volatile area because the population is ethnic Greek-India who like to fight and also because the government his brother, Prince Susima chaotic. Therefore, in this area many formed militias security screw. Asoka agreed and went to the area being hit by the turmoil. So when the news that Asoka is coming to visit them with his troops, he was greeted with respect by the rebel militia and insurgency could be ended without bloodshed. (The province revolted again at a later date when Asoka ruled, but then crushed with an iron fist).

The success of Asoka made his elder brothers became increasingly worried about the meaning emperor successor, the stirring up of him throwing Bindusara Susima to Asoka. Asoka went to Kalinga and hide his identity. There he met a woman named Karubaki fisherman, and he fell in love. Inscriptions recently discovered shows that he later became the consort of a second or third concubines.

In the meantime, there is a rebellion again, this time in Ujjayani (Ujjain). Bindusara Asoka Maharaja invited back for two years after disposal. Asoka went to Ujjayani and wounded in the fighting there, but managed to quell the rebellion hulubalangnya. Asoka then treated discreetly so that the faithful followers of the prince Susima can not hurt. He was taken care of by the monks and Buddhist nuns. This is where he first became acquainted with the teachings of Buddha, and here again he met with David, who was his personal nurse and the daughter of a merchant named Widisha. So after recovering, he married her. It can not be accepted by Bindusara that one of his sons is married to a Buddhist, so he will not let him stay in Pataliputra, but sent him back to Ujjayani and make being a governor.

The next year went pretty quiet and the Goddess will give birth to her first son.

Meanwhile Bindusara emperor died. While news of the unborn crown spread, Prince Susima intend to kill him: but the murderer would kill his mother. According to legend, in a state of rage, Prince Ashoka attacked Pataliputra (now Patna), and cut off the heads of his brothers are all included Susima, and throw it in a well in Pataliputra. At that time many people who call Canda Asoka Asoka which means it is the killer and did not know love.

While Asoka ascended the throne, he expands his empire over the next eight years later from the border of what is now Bangladesh and Assam in India in the east to the areas in Iran and Afghanistan in the west; of Palmir Knots until near the end of the peninsula of India in the next southern India.

Buddha Asoka in.

According to legend, one day after the war ended, Asoka roam the city and could see only the houses on fire and bodies lying everywhere. It made him sick and he cried out in words that became famous: "What have I done?" This ultimately makes it an abomination conquest embraced Buddhism and he used his position to promote a philosophy that is still relatively new to the known everywhere, as far as Rome and Egypt. Since that time Asoka, formerly known as "the cruel Ashoka" (Canda Asoka) became known as the "Asoka the Pious" (Dharmâsoka).

He was then promoted Buddhism and menyebarkannnya Wibhajyawada in the region and throughout the known world from 250 BC. Maharaja Asoka is said to be the first to seriously pursue the formation of political units of the Buddha.

In this effort, he was assisted by his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta noble (which means "partner Sangha"), and brought Buddhism to Sri Lanka. Asoka built thousands of stupas and temples for Buddhists. Stupas at Sanchi is famous and the stupa named Sanchi Stupa I was set up by Maharaja Asoka. For the rest of his reign, he adopted an official policy of anti-violence ahingsa. Even the slaughter and torture against the animal waste was banned. Wildlife is protected by laws that prohibit the emperor hunting for sport and leisure time. Limited hunting is allowed for consumption purposes but Ashoka also promoted the concept of vegetarianism.

Asoka also have mercy on the prisoners in jail. They were allowed to take leave, a day within a year. He berusaja enhance the professional ambitions of ordinary people to build centers of study that may be called a university. He also sought for agricultural irrigation system. People are treated equally, regardless of degree, religion, political opinion, racial, ethnic and caste them. Kingdoms around real easily conquered territory he has made as an honorable ally.

Ashoka also believed to build hospitals for animals and renovating major roads linking the areas in India. After his transformation, known as Asoka Dhammashoka (Pali language), meaning Ashoka, followers of the Dhamma, or the Soleh Asoka. The form in Sanskrit is Dharmâsoka. Asoka then define the basic principles of dharma (dhamma) as an anti-violence, tolerance of all sects or religious sects, and any opinions, mematuhii parents, respect for the Brahmins, religious teachers and priests, be kind to friends, treatment terahadap human servants, and generosity toward all people. These principles of ethical behavior offend the general direction towards each other where there is no religious or social group that could oppose.

Some critics reckon that Asoka fear of more war. But actually its neighboring countries, including the Seleucid Empire and the kingdom-the Greco-Bactrian kingdom established by Diodotus I, none could match the power of Asoka. Asoka lived at the same time as Antiochus I Soter and his successor Antiochus II Theos of the Seleucid dynasty as well as Diodotus I and his son Diodotus II of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. If the inscriptions and the charter-charter studied carefully, it can be concluded that he was familiar with the Hellenistic world but never in awe. Charter-charter that addresses the relationship of friendship, gave Antiochus of the Seleucid empire and Ptolemy III of Egypt. But the fame of the Mauryan empire had spread since the grandfather of Asoka, Maurya defeated Seleucus Nicator Candragupta, founder of the Seleucid dynasty.

The source of much of our knowledge of Ashoka is the many inscriptions and dipahatkannya left in the pillars and rocks throughout the empire. Asoka Maharaja also known as Piyadasi (in Pali) or Priyadarsi (in Sanskrit) which means "flawless good" or "Gods blessed with good grace." All his inscriptions have the imperial touch and show his deep love of neighbor; he greets people with "my kids". These inscriptions promoted Buddhist morality and appropriate to encourage non-violent action and determination in melaksanan Dharma (duty or virtuous actions). These inscriptions also talk about his fame and conquered countries as well as neighboring countries are trying to destroy it. Information about the battle of Kalinga are also available and also about Asoka allies. Then information about the civilian government there. The pillars of Asoka at Sarnath is the most well known relics of Asoka. They are made of granite and record the visit of emperor Ashoka to Sarnath in the 3rd century BC. This pillar has four lion head shaped tops that my back to one another. The symbol of modern India is the fourth of this lion. The lion symbolizes power than Asoka, also symbolizes the nature of the kingdom of the Buddha (the lion is considered king of the jungle that dominate all the wildlife and the Buddha was a crown prince). In translate texts that are in the inscription on the pillars of this, historians can learn a lot about the Mauryan Empire. But difficult does it say all true or not. What is clear is that these texts show us how the emperor Asoka want to be remembered.

Ashoka's own words as known from the charter-charter is: "All men are my children. I like their father. As a father wants his son to virtue and happiness, I wish that all people are always happy." Edward D'Cruz interprets emperor Ashoka dharma as "religion is used as a symbol of imperial unity and all an adhesive cement to match to unify heterogeneous elements and diverse empire."

Death and legacy

Maharaja Asoka ruled for 41 years, and after his death, the Mauryan dynasty survived for more than 50 years. Ashoka had many concubines and children, but their names are not known. Mahinda and Sanghamitta were twins born to his first wife, Lady in the city Ujjayini. He believed them to spread Buddhism in the world, known and unknown. Mahinda and Sanghamitta go to Sri Lanka and include King, Queen and their people to Buddhism. They then traveled the world to the world of Hellenistic Egypt (Greece). So that they can not carry out the obligations of government. Some talk about the successor of Asoka rare archive named Kunal, who is the son of Asoka from his last wife.

Time of emperor Ashoka's leadership could have easily disappeared in history, with berselangnya century, if he did not leave anything historical archives. Maharaja testimony is found in the form of pillars and large rocks that are magnificent to dipahati inscription. The contents are the teachings and the actions he wants to spread widely disseminated. In addition Asoka also left us the first written language in India after the ancient city Harrapa. But unlike in Harrapa, Asoka texts we can understand. The language used in the Asoka inscriptions written texts is a form of language or languages ​​of the people Prakerta / Prakrit and not Sanskrit.

In the year 185 BC, about 50 years after the death of Asoka, Mauryan ruler last, Brhadrata, brutally murdered by warlords Maurya, Sunga Pusyamitra, while he was inspecting his troops. Pusyamitra Sunga Sunga founded a dynasty (185 BC-78 BC) and ruled only parts of the Mauryan Empire had collapsed.

The new nearly 2,000 years later under the leadership of Akbar the Great and his great-grandson (great-) Aurangzeb, a large part of the Indian subcontinent who had ruled Asoka, united under one leadership. But ultimately, the British under the British Empire Indialah that unites the subcontinent was divided into a political force and paved the way towards re-emergence of the modern state while Bharata Ashoka emblem, inspired by his teachings are full of a sense of strong leadership and compassion fellow.

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