Isaac Newton Biography

Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton  (born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, January 4, 1643 - died March 31, 1727 at the age of 84 years; KJ: December 25, 1642 - 20 March 1727) was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who came from England. He is the heliocentric and the followers of the most influential scientists in history, even said to be the father of classical physics.

The work of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687 considered the most influential books in the history of science. This book laid the foundations of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described the laws of gravity and three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the universe for three centuries. Newton was able to show that the motion of objects on Earth and outer space objects are set by the set of natural laws are the same. He proved it by showing the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion with the theory of gravity. His work was finally remove doubt scientists will heliosentrisme and advancing the scientific revolution.

In the field of mechanics, Newton sparked the principle of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In the field of optics, he successfully built the first reflecting telescope [and developed the theory of color based on the observation that a glass prism will split white light into other colors. He also formulated the law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.
In mathematics as well, along with the works of Gottfried Leibniz carried out separately, Newton developed differential calculus and integral calculus. He also managed to define binomial theory, developed the "Newton method" to approach the zero value of a function, and contribute to the study of power series.
Newton even now is still very influential among scientists. A 2005 survey which asked the scientists and the public at the Royal Society of who is to make greater contributions in science, whether Newton or Albert Einstein, showed that Newton considered to provide a greater contribution.

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Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 [KJ: December 25, 1642] at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet (village) in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of his birth, England had adopted the Julian calendar, so the day of his birth is recorded as December 25, 1642 on Christmas day. His father, also named Isaac Newton died three months before the birth of Newton. Newton was born prematurely; also reported his mother, Hannah Ayscough, once said that he could fit into a cup (≈ 1.1 liters). When Newton was three, her mother remarried and left the Newton under the care of his grandmother, Margery Ayscough. Young Newton did not like his stepfather and save his mother's hatred for the man to marry, as revealed in his confession: "threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."

Newton started school while living with his grandmother in the village and then sent to a local language school in Grantham where he eventually became the smartest kids in school. When the school at Grantham, he lived in a boarding house owned by a local pharmacist named William Clarke. Before going to school at the University of Cambridge at the age of 19, Newton had established the love with a foster brother William Clarke, Anne Storer. When Newton focused on his lessons, his love story with a more uncertain and ultimately Storer married someone else. Many menegatakan that he, Newton, always remembering his love story next, although Newton never mentioned having a boyfriend and even marry.

Since the age of 12 to 17 years, Newton was educated at The King's School school located in Grantham (his signature is still there in the school library). His family issued a Newton from school on the grounds that he was a farmer only, however, Newton does not like his new job. King's School headmaster then convinced his mother to send Newton back to school so he could finish his education. Newton was able to finish school at the age of 18 with satisfactory grades.

In June 1661, Newton received at Trinity College University of Cambridge as a sizar (a student is learning by doing).  At the time, university teaching is based on the teachings of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the ideas of modern philosophers of the more advanced such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory which eventually evolved into the calculus. Newton soon after getting his degree in August 1665, Cambridge University was closed because of the Great Plague. Although his studies at Cambridge in mediocrity, doing private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the past two years pushing to develop the theory of calculus, optics, and the law of gravity. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer at Trinity.

Most historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently. Both also use different mathematical notation. According to close friends of Newton, Newton had completed his work for years before Leibniz, but did not publish it until the year 1693. He also explained in full in the new year 1704, when in 1684, Leibniz had begun to publish a full explanation of his work. Notation and "differential method" Leibniz is universally adopted on the Continent, while the newly adopted United Kingdom after 1820.

Leibniz in a notebook, can be found any systematic ideas that show how Leibniz developed kalkulusnya from beginning to end, when the records of Newton can be found only the end result only. Newton claimed that he was reluctant to publish kalkulusnya because of fear of ridicule. Newton also has a close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. In 1691, Duillie mempersiapaan plan for a new version of the book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Newton, but never finish it. In 1693 also the relationship between the two became as close as before. At the same time, Duillier exchanged letters with Leibniz.

In 1699, members of the Royal Society began to accuse Leibniz plagiarized Newton's work. This dispute culminated in the year 1711. Royal Society and in one study determined that the actual inventor Newtonlah and labeled Leibniz as a plagiarist. The review was then in doubt because later found that Newton had written the final word on the conclusions of this review report. Since then bermulainya fierce dispute between Newton by Leibniz. This dispute ended in 1716 after the death of Leibniz.

Newton is generally recognized as the inventor of the generalized binomial theorem is true for all exponents. He also discovered the identity of Newton, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves, providing a substantial contribution to the theory of finite difference, and is the first to use the rank berpecahan and apply coordinate geometry to derive the settlement equation Diophantus.
He was elected to the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. At that time, the teachers Cambridge or Oxford to be a teacher who has been ordained an Anglican priest. However, the Lucasian professorship also requires its officials are not active in the church. Therefore, Newton argued that he seharusnyalah freed from the necessity of ordination. King Charles II accepted this argument and agree, that the conflict between Newton's religious views with the Anglican church can be avoided.


Replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672
From years 1670 to 1672, Newton taught field optics. During this period, he investigated the refraction of light, indicating that the glass prism can divide the spectrum of white light into many colors, as well as lenses and prisms will combine both the lights back into white light.

He also pointed out that the colored light does not change its properties by separating the colored beam and shining it into various objects. Newton noted that regardless of whether the light beam is reflected, scattered or transmitted, the color of the light beam does not change. Thus he observed that the color is the interaction of objects with light that has been colored, and the object itself does not create the color. This is known as Newton's theory of color
From this he concludes that its lens refraction telescope will be impaired due to the dispersion of light into different colors (chromatic aberration). As proof of this concept he built a telescope using a mirror as an objective to outsmart the problem. . The execution of this design, the first reflecting telescope known functional, which is now known as Newton telescope  involves solving the problem how to find a suitable mirror material and forming techniques. Newton cerminny rubbing himself of a special composition of highly reflective metal speculum, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the telescope optics. At the end of 1668  he managed to produce a first reflective telescope. In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration telescope pantulnya. Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes, On Colour (About Color), which later developed into Opticks.

When Robert Hooke criticized some of Newton's ideas, he was so offended that he withdrew from public life. Newton and Hooke communicate briefly in 1679-1680, when Hooke, who was appointed to manage the correspondence of the Royal Society, wrote a letter that is intended to obtain the contribution of Newton to encourage the publication of the Royal Society of Newton to complete the proof that the planet's elliptical orbit is the result of the centripetal force is inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of gravity) and the De motu corporum in gyrum). But relations between the two scientists are generally remained poor until Hooke's death.

Newton argued that light consists of particles or corpuscles, which direfraksikan with acceleration into a more dense medium. He inclines to the theory of wave-like sound to explain the recurrent patterns of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.II, Props. 12), but still maintains the theory of 'fits' that determines whether the corpuscles reflected or transmitted. The physicists then prefer the pure wave theory to explain untu light interference pattern, and the general phenomenon of diffraction. Quantum mechanics, photons, and the wave-particle duality of today have only the slightest resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.

In the Hypothesis of Light, published in 1675, Newton postulated the existence of ether to deliver antarpartikel style. Contact with Henry More, a Theosophist, aroused his interest in alchemy. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on the hermetic ideas about gravity and the repulsion between particles. John Maynard Keynes, who gained a lot of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the Enlightenment (Age of Reason): he is the last magician." Newton's interest in alchemy can not be separated from his contributions to science ; but it seems he's left the study alkimianya ..  (This is when there is no clear distinction between alchemy and science). If only he did not rely on the idea of ​​magical action at a distance, in a vacuum, he probably will not develop the theory of gravity. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies).

In 1704 Newton published Opticks, which outlines in detail the corpuscular theory of light. He thought the light was made of particles (corpuscles) are very subtle, that ordinary matter consists of particles that are more rugged, and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "rough objects and light is it possible to change from one form to another, ... and is it possible to receive objects of activity of the particles of light that enters the composition? " ("Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, ... and may not Bodies receive much of Their Activity from the which the particles of Light Their Composition enter?" Newton also built a primitive form of frictional electrostatic generator, using glass sphere (Optics, 8th Query).
In the article entitled "Newton, prisms and the 'Opticks' of tunable lasers  indicated that in his book Opticks was Newton who first diagram shows the use of prisms as pengekspansi beam of light. In the book he was describing the same, through diagrams, use of the composition multiple prisms. Approximately 278 years after the discussion by Newton, prisms pengekspansi become a staple of the development of multiple laser tertalakan lebargaris narrow. use this file pengekspansi prism led to the development of multiple-prism dispersion theory.

Mechanics and gravity

In 1679 Newton began work on celestial mechanics, namely gravity and its effect on the orbits of the planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. It is stimulated by a brief exchange of letters during 1679-80 by Hooke, who has been appointed to manage the correspondence of the Royal Society, and open the correspondence which is intended to solicit donations from Newton to the Royal Society's scientific journals. The rise of interest in Newton returned to astronomy get stimulus further with the advent of a comet in the winter of 1680-1681, which discusses in his correspondence with John Flamsteed. After a discussion with Hooke, Newton created the evidence that the elliptical shape of planetary orbits to be derived from the centripetal force is inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector . Newton sent the results of this work to Edmond Halley and the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum, a treatise written in the nine pages that are copied into the register book the Royal Society in December 1684 This treatise formed the core of the argument will then be developed in Principia.
Principia was published on July 5, 1687 with the support and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work Newton stated Newton's laws of motion that allows a lot of progress in the Industrial Revolution that followed. This law is not revised again in more than 200 years later, and still is the foundation of the non-relativistic modern world. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) to the effect that was later renamed as gravity, and define the law of universal gravitation.

In the same work, Newton presented the method of analytic geometry is similar to the calculus, the 'ratio of the first and last', and specify the analysis to determine (based on Boyle's law) the speed of sound in air, determine the form of spheroids Flattening the Earth, taking into account the precession of the equinoxes due to the pull of gravity Flattening the Earth's moon, began the study of movement disorders Moon gravity, giving the comet orbit determination theory, and much more.

Newton heliosentrisnya clear view of the solar system, developed in a more modern form, since the mid 1680's he had to admit the sun is right in the center of gravity of the solar system For Newton, the center of the Sun or other celestial bodies can not be silent, but should "center of gravity with Earth, Sun and Planets, planets that have called the Heart of the World", and the center of gravity is "still or moving uniformly in a straight line." (Newton adopted an alternative view "not moving" with respect to the common view that the center, wherever it is, not moving.

Postulate of Newton-on-one action-distance is not visible cause he was criticized for introducing "occult intermediaries" into science. In the second edition of the Principia (1713) Newton categorically rejects the criticism in the General Scholium at the end of the book. He writes that it is enough to conclude that this phenomenon implies the pull of gravity, but it does not indicate why. Neither necessary nor feasible to formulate hypotheses things that are not implied by the phenomenon. Newton here uses the phrase that became known, Hypotheses non fingo.

Thanks to the Principia, Newton recognized internationally  He was a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, an intense relationship with him until 1693, when the relationship ended abruptly. At the same time Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.

Old age

In the decade 1690's, Newton wrote a religious treatise that discusses the literal interpretation of Scripture. Henry More confidence about the Universe and the rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Manuscript which he sent to John Locke that contains a refutation of the existence of the Trinity was never published. The works finally, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) was published after his death. He also devotes considerable time to the study of alchemy.

Newton is a member of British Parliament from 1689 until 1690, and in the year 1701. But according to some reports his comments in parliament only complaint about the flow of cold air in the room and request that the window is closed.

Newton moved to London to occupy the position of supervisor Printing Coin Royal (Royal Mint) in 1696, a position he gets the support of Charles Montagu, First Earl Halifax, who was then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was responsible for printing the English coin return, a task which overlaps with the Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower of London. He also gets a job as deputy superintendent Chester branch for Edmond Halley. Newton became master Printing Coin (Master of the Mint), the most famous after the death of Thomas Neale in 1699, he held the position remained until the end. This designation is meant as a light work, but Newton treat it as a serious duty, and retired from duty at Cambridge in 1701, and moving the power to reform the currency and punish counterfeiters and coin cutter.

As a professor Printing Coin in 1717 Newton moved to the pound sterling standard silver standard of the gold standard, to determine the relationship between the bimetallic coins of gold and silver coin a profitable gold coins. This led to Serling silver coins melted down and shipped out of Britain. Newton was appointed as President of the Royal Society in 1703 and became a fellow of the French Academy of Sciences (Académie des Sciences). On its position in the Royal Society, Newton became hostile to John Flamsteed, Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's work, Historia Coelestis Britannica, which has been used by Newton in his study.

April 1705 at the Queen Anne Newton as the Knights raised during a visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. This appointment is likely driven by political calculations in connection with the Parliamentary elections in May 1705, rather than recognition of the scientific works of Newton or his services as master Printing Coin .. Newton is the scientist who was appointed as a knight, after Francis Bacon.

Approaching the end of his life, Newton lived in Cranbury Park, near Winchester with a niece and her husband, until his death in 1727. Newton died in his sleep in London on March 31, 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726], and was interred in Westminster Abbey. Niece Catherine Barton Conduitt, acting as host at times of social affairs in rumhnya in Jermyn Street in London. He was "a very loving uncle," according to Newton's letter to his niece Catherine Barton at the time it was recovering from smallpox. Newton who remained single had distributed most of his possessions to his relatives in his final years, and died without leaving a legacy.
After his death, Newton's body was found to contain large amounts of mercury, probably as a result al chemical study. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in the end.

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