Thomas Hobbes Life Story

Thomas Hobbes 
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (born in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England, 5 April 1588 - died in Derbyshire, England, December 4, 1679 at age 91 years) was a British philosopher who is famous empirisme.His views wing man concept from the standpoint of empiricism- materialism, and a view of human relationships with the state system.
Hobbes has an influence on the entire field of study in the UK and the moral political philosophy, especially through the very famous book "Leviathan". Hobbes not only famous in Britain but also in continental Europe. [Also known as a philosopher, Hobbes also known as a mathematician and scholar klasik.Ia been a math teacher Charles II as well as publishing the work of translation of the Iliad and Odyssey Homeros.


Early life and education

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was born in Malmesbury, a small town within 25 miles of London.Ia was born on April 15, 1588. When Hobbes was born, the Spanish fleet was attacked Inggris.Ayah Hobbes was a minister in Westport, part of Malmesbury.Ayahnya trouble with the church that fled the city and leaving Hobbes to be raised by his uncle.
In 1603-1608, Hobbes studied at Magdalen Hall, Oxford at the age of 14 years. According to Hobbes's personal testimony, he did not like physics and Aristotelian logic. He preferred to read about the exploration of the discovery of new lands and learn the maps of the earth and the stars That's why astronomy is the science that gets the attention of Hobbes, and continued to work at by Hobbes. Then in the later, Hobbes also regretted that he did not learn mathematics while studying in Oxford.

Jobs in the UK

After his education, got a job as a teacher Hobbes noble family, the family of William Cavendish Cavendish.Murid that Hobbes was an heir to the family. Aside from being a teacher, Hobbes also serves as secretary, friend, and treasurer of the William Cavendish.

In 1614-1615, Hobbes and William traveled to France and Italy, where they learn the language Italia.Sepulangnya to England in 1616, Cavendish associated with Francis Bacon and Hobbes had time to do some secretarial work for Bacon. Together with William, Hobbes became acquainted with the political world, both in thought and praktik.William in 1614 and 1621 is a member of parliament so that Hobbes certainly participate in the sessions of parliament.
William Cavendish died in 1628, and when it has completed the translation of Hobbes Hobbes Thucydides.Karya is a valuable scientific work because it is the first work which is a direct English translation of the Greek language. In addition, where there is a map of the ancient Greek world gathered from many sources and drawn by Hobbes himself.

Within these works, Hobbes showed his pro-British monarchy and not so fond of the democratic system. In the auto-biography, Hobbes says that the historian Thucydides was his favorite because "it shows how incompetent the democratic system".
After the death of William, Hobbes quit his job at the Cavendish family for two years. At that time. He worked again as a teacher of children bangsawan.Pada 1629 until 1630, Hobbes and his disciples traveled to France and Swiss.Di Geneva, during the months of April to June 1630, Hobbes began reading the book Eukleides entitled "Elements" and interested the deductive method Eukleides.
After returning to England, in 1631, Hobbes returned to work at the Cavendish family to become a teacher of the child William. At this time, Hobbes spend time to learn mathematics and other scientific fields.

Period 1630's were the years that are important in the intellectual development of Hobbes. In this period Hobbes attention to science, especially optics, ranging berkembang.Selain, the thought of Hobbes's political philosophy began to evolve, as seen from the book "Elements of Law" is issued at the end of the decade in 1630's.

In 1634, Hobbes and his return trip to mainland Europe, namely France and Italia.Perjalanan was a big influence on the intellectual development of Hobbes because he was acquainted with the scientists and mathematicians from Perancis.Di in auto-biography, Hobbes says that he has studied the principles of natural science in France.

After Hobbes returned to England in October 1636, he uses a lot of time to filsafat.Hal works is because the students have started to mature so that Hobbes has a lot of free time. One of the works of Hobbes's philosophy of science, the earliest was a manuscript of the optics, entitled "Latin Optical MS". The work was completed in 1640. Hobbes also wrote other manuscripts on metaphysics and epistemology.
Hobbes jobs in science and metaphysics in 1630 stopped at the end of the decade's political situation. In 1637, the absolute power of King Charles I began dipersoalkan.Hobbes show support to the king by dedicating the book "Elements of Law" to answer the question of absolute power. [5] The two subsequent works of Hobbes, "De Cive" and "Leviathan", further develop the ideas in the book, although three of the same essence.

In 1640, Hobbes began to consider to stay in Paris with her safety reasons and to further stimulate pemikirannya.Akan but, what is the direct reason of Hobbes's departure from England to France is a debate that occurred in the parliament on November 7, there 1640.Di , the anti-monarchy began to voice opposition to the people who support the pro-monarchy and absolute power. Because Hobbes is anxious to be called to account "Elements of Law", eventually he went to Paris.

In Paris

In Paris, Hobbes quickly merges with the intellectual situation there because his partner is assisted by Mersenne. In 1642, Mersenne also petrified publication of Hobbes 'De Cive'. Through the book, Hobbes established himself as a writer in the field of politics which has a reputation throughout Eropa.Tidak time later, Mersenne also helps publishing some examples of the work of Hobbes in physics and optics in the two-volume compilation in 1644. The title of the work of Hobbes is "Cogitata physico-mathematica" and "Universae". Through Mersenne also, Hobbes can be met in the early 1640's with the French philosopher and scientist.

During the period 1640's, Hobbes gives more attention to physics, metaphysics, and theology rather than philosophy politik.Pada years 1642-1643, Hobbes wrote a work against the Catholic view of an Aristotelian philosopher named Thomas White Later in 1645, engaged in a polemic with Hobbes Anglican theologian who is also named John Bramhall about the nature of free will. Polemic that occurred long enough and takes a long time.

Charles II, Hobbes student in France.

In 1646, Hobbes was asked to become a math teacher for Prince Charles II, son of King Charles I.Pekerjaan brings Hobbes is more intensive in touch with politicians, courtiers, and ecclesiastical officials, all of the parties pro- monarchy. The situation is made re-enter the field politik.Karya Hobbes Hobbes's "Leviathan" was published in the UK with the help of a friend, in April 1651.

In 1648, Hobbes began planning to return to Inggris.Beberapa Shortly thereafter, the British political situation has changed since the year 1649 King Charles I was executed. In France, the situation changed because Mersenne Hobbes also had died, and Gassendi, Hobbes one other friend, moved to southern France. The book "Leviathan" by Hobbes can be seen as a shift in his political views to a more neutral, because there he did not openly claim to be pro-monarchy, but to talk about power saja.Sebaliknya, Hobbes views about religion in the book "Leviathan" Hobbes had a problem with making people around Charles II, especially the agamawan.Hobbes threatened to be brought to justice, and some time later the French church officials decided to bring Hobbes into pengadilan.Karena it, Hobbes fled from France in mid-December 1651, heading to the UK.

Back to london

Upon their return to England, Hobbes lived in London and returned to work before, ie, a lecturer in the family poor bangsawan.Nama will be accepted Hobbes as "Leviathan" does not immediately appear. Many early readers of the book was quite surprised by the content of religion, but did not immediately speak out.
In addition to the clergy, another group who feel disturbed by the book "Leviathan" is the academics of the university-led Hobbes universitas.Hal it received criticism from academics. One of the academics who criticized Hobbes is John Wallis.Mereka involved in the polemic in the field of mathematics for nearly twenty years.
In the era of the 1660s, Hobbes has come under pressure from religious parties because of his views on religion.In the early 1660's there was a rumor that said some of the Bishops of the Anglican Church will establish a sesat.Selain Hobbes was, in 1666, committee of the Board Rakyat (House of Commons) are urged to investigate the book "Leviathan".

Hobbes appears to respond to pressure by publishing the writings of the late decades of the 1660s who openly defend himself from any criticism of the text Hobbes.Beberapa faith, including a brief biography of Hobbes, is "Consider Birthday Mr. Hobbes", adding an appendix to the translation Latin of the "Leviathan" to defend the work of the heresy charges in 1668, an auto-biography in Latin in 1679, and a work of polemic history of the church in Latin, entitled "Historia ecclesiastica" in 1688

End of Life

Various publications that carried Hobbes (plus other works on mathematics and the translation of the Iliad and Odyssey in English Homeros) Hobbes on the proven productivity of the more advanced age. 63 years old when Hobbes "Leviathan" was published, and he continued to write until the age of 91 years old when he died. Hobbes lived with the Cavendish family who gave him protection dam keamanan.Kemudian when Charles II, his former student, gained power in England, Hobbes was pardoned because he fled to England and sided with the anti-monarchy.

Despite Hobbes has loyal followers in England, but he is more respected and have influence in France. He is regarded as one of the greatest philosophers that ever existed, and the book "Leviathan" became famous there.
Hobbes died on December 4, 1679. He suffered from a serious illness since October and a week before he died he was buried in the affected stroke.Hobbes Hault Hukcnall, near Hardwick Hall. On top of his tombstone, there are words written by Hobbes himself: "He dalah an expert, and because of its reputation in many sciences, it is widely known both domestically and abroad.



The core idea is rooted in the empiricism of Hobbes (empeiria derived from the Greek meaning 'versed in, acquainted with'). Empiricism states that experience is the origin of all knowledge. According to Hobbes, philosophy is a science about the effects or consequences of the fact that it can be observed. All that is determined by certain causes, which follow the laws of science and real science alam.Yang is observable by human senses, and in no way depends on the ratio of men (as opposed to rationalism). By stating that only a true sensual, Hobbes get a guarantee of truth.


Hobbes was a materialist. He believes that humans (including the mind, and even God) consists of materi.Meskipun is never explicitly mentioned in his works, Hobbes had attacked his opponent who believe in immaterial things.

On the independence of philosophy

Hobbes is known as one of the pioneers of independence of philosophy.Hobbes argues that all this time, the philosophy of many infiltrated religius.Hobbes confirms the idea that the object of philosophy is the physical objects that move along with their features. According to him, the substance that can not be changed, such as God, and the substance can not be touched empirically, such as spirits, angels, and so on, are not objects of filsafat.Hobbes states that philosophy should limit itself to the issue of control over nature.
Based on such consideration, Hobbes claimed that only four areas in philosophy, namely:
Geometry, which is a reflection of objects in space.
Physics, which is the reciprocal reflection of objects and their motion.
Ethics, which in the sense of close to psikologi.Maksudnya Hobbes, reflection on human desires and feelings as well as mental motions
Politics, which is a reflection on social institutions.
Hobbes states that the four areas are interrelated to one another. Therefore, Hobbes argued that human society and can be viewed through motion and matter in physics.

About the introduction of

As adherents of empiricism, Hobbes assumes that the knowledge derived from experience alone mata.Tidak like the rationalists, the introduction of the reason is simply to have a reasonable mekanis.Pengenalan function begins with the words that refer to certain signs in accordance with the actual habit. Abstract concepts is a mere name, which as the name for images that memory, not the name of the object in itself sendiri.Pengamatan sensory occurs because the motion of objects outside the human-induced stimulation of the senses manusia.Rangsangan is transmitted to the brain, and from the brain to the heart. In the heart there arose a certain reaction that respond to these observations.


Hobbesian view of man begins with the question: what moves people? (What makes him tick?). Here, Hobbes compares man with a watch that moves on a regular basis since there are spare parts in a mechanical saw man dalamnya.Hobbes Man is a mere pile of material that works and moves according to the laws of natural science. For that, he removed all sorts of moral-metaphysical assumptions about people. For example, the view that humans have a social nature, freedom, immortality of the soul, and so on. The soul and mind are only considered as part of the mechanical processes in the body.

After knowing the whole relationship between spare parts of a watch, then we can know the working principle of the cause at hand was moving. Hobbes final conclusions about the human factor in the human psyche, that is lust. The most powerful passions of man is the desire to defend itself, or in other words, fear of loss of Hobbes's rationale nyawa.Dari then formulate his views on the very famous.


Hobbes thought about the state contained in his great work entitled "Leviathan.Leviathan is the name of a mythological beast in the Middle East is very wild. In the philosophy of Hobbes, Leviathan is a symbol of a state system. [Like the Leviathan, the state must be absolutely powerful and feared by all subjects, because only in this way human beings can experience order and happiness.
In the view of humans, Hobbes argues that all human behavior is determined by the need to defend themselves or the fear of losing nyawa.Dengan know about it, Hobbes was able to answer the question of how people should behave well, ie mastering their fear of death. When the man made threats and fear, he will be able to control their emotions and desires so that social life can be guaranteed. Therefore, the state must suppress the fear of death of its citizens, so that anyone doing good.

The formation of the state

According to Hobbes, human nature is not social, Humans only have one tendency in him, namely the desire to maintain this trend diri.Karena man hostile and suspicious of every other human being: homo homini lupus! (Man is a wolf to his neighbor). This situation led to a "war of all against all" (Bellum Omnium contra omnes). This is the "natural state" when the state has not been formed.However, if the constant war of all against all, of course, human existence is also threatened. For that, human beings entered into a joint agreement to establish a state, which requires them to live in peace and order.

Status of state

Countries in absolute power and right to determine the fate of its people in order to maintain order and peace.Status absolutely owned the agreement because the state is not a peer, but rather the result of inter-national agreement.That is, in the agreement forming the country, every citizen countries have handed over all their rights to the stateHowever, the state has absolutely no liability whatsoever for its citizens, including the obligation to be accountable to the people.

Countries are above all citizens and absolute power. Then the state is also entitled to demand absolute obedience to the citizens of the existing laws, and provide penalties for noncompliance, including the death penalty. Thus, citizens would suppress the passions and instincts to behave destruktif.Selanjutnya, citizens will choose to obey the law because it has put the fear of death. The loss of freedom of citizens of the country is a price to pay if all people want to live in peace, order and peace.

Restrictions on state power

If state power is so absolute and can not be sued by citizens, not the potential for abuse of power by the state becomes very large? To prevent this, Hobbes states two things.
First, there needs to be awareness of the ruling party about the concept of justice, should be accountable for his actions later in the presence of God in final judgment.

Second, if the state threatens the survival of the citizens, every citizen who has a fear of death will turn destroy the country, before the devastating mereka.Pada such situations, people will return to the "natural state" to further establish a better state, and so on.


Hobbes's writings, especially the "Leviathan", greatly affects the entire political philosophy and moral philosophy in England in the later period. In continental Europe, Hobbes also brings a strong influence. One of the great philosopher Baruch Spinoza was influenced Hobbes. Spinoza influenced by Hobbes in the political views and also how to relate to the Bible.

Hobbes is also a philosopher, if not the first, which is very influential in the debate between free will and determinism. In addition, he is also one of the most important philosophers of language because he believes that language is not only used to explain the world, but also to demonstrate the behaviors and also to enter into a covenant and a contract.

Then Hobbes was also influential in the study of contractarianism. Contractarianism is part of the moral theories and the politics that uses the idea of ​​social contract theory. Hobbes is one of the traditional social contract philosophers who use the social contract idea to emphasize the role of the state. Here, Hobbes is a pioneer of one of the two moral arguments about the social contract ada.Satu types of moral arguments about the social contract is given by Immanuel Kant.

In addition, Hobbes also the first modern philosopher in the field of sensationalism. Sensationalism is a view that regards all mental states, in particular human cognitive, beraal of composition or associations of mere sensation or feeling.

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