Richard Arkwright-Father of The Industrial Revolution



Father of The Industrial Revolution
Richard Arkwright


Sir Richard Arkwright (born in Preston, Lancashire, December 23, 1732 - died in Cromford, Derbyshire, August 3, 1792 at age 59 years), is an Englishman, though his patent is not recognized, often regarded as the inventor of the spinning machine (spinning frame is then water re-called frame) and hydro-power spinning machine after a change to the power of water. He also patented carding machines that can transform raw cotton into yarn. A person who likes to work, he was a leading entrepreneur of the Industrial Revolution. Achievement of Arkwright is to combine power, machinery, half-educated workers, and new material made of cotton for large-scale production of yarn, more than a century before Ford. Ability to organize to make it more than others, the inventor of the modern factory system, especially spinning at Cromford.


Richard Arkwright, the youngest of thirteen children, born in Preston, Lancashire, England on December 23, 1732. His father Thomas was a tailor clothes and a Burgess Preston Guild. His family was recorded in the Preston Guild Rolls are now stored in the Lancashire Record Office. Richard's parents, Sarah and Thomas can not afford to set it to school and learn to read and write to her cousin Ellen. Richard then an apprentice to Mr. Nicholson, a barber in the nearby town of Kirkham and began his work to make 'periwigs' fashion (wigs) at the time. Her income then becomes the initial financing of the manufacture of cotton spinning machine example.


Arkwright married his first wife, Patience Holt, 1755. They have a son of Richard Arkwright Junior that year. Patience died in 1756 because of the unknown. Arkwright later married Margaret Biggins in 1761, they have three children, Susanna who just live to adulthood. After his first wife's death he became a self-employed.


Water frame

At work, Arkwright interested in spinning machines and carding a change of raw cotton into yarn. In 1768 he and John Kay, a clockmaker moved to the textile center in Nottingham. In 1769 he patented his water frame machine, a machine that produces hard-spun, using wood and metal cylinder menggantika human fingers. This makes the yarn to produce a calico can be produced more cheaply, which later became the early development of the cotton industry (fabrics of cotton fiber).

Carding machine


Paul Lewis found a machine for carding in 1748. Richard Arkwright made improvements on this machine and in 1775 filed a patent for a new Carding Machine, which converts crude into untingan wadding cotton fibers which can then be rolled spun into yarn. Arkwright and John Smalley set up a small horse-powered mill in Nottingham. Require more capital for development, Arkwright teamed up with Jedediah Strutt and Samuel Need, owners of factories socks and underwear in a rich, neither of which is rigid to changes. Joint venture in 1771 to build the first hydroelectric mills at Cromford in the world who have hydropower and not a follower of the church. Arkwright spent £ 12,000 perfecting his machine, which has a "crank and comb" ("crank and comb") to cast the net of cotton carding machine. Arkwright did mechanization throughout the preparation of spinning, and he began to build a cotton mill as far as Scotland's hydroelectricity.


Its success prompted many people to emulate, so he found difficulties in getting a patent filing in 1775. Pemintalnya machines are technically advanced than James Hargreaves spinning jenny made.
Since then, Arkwright kembli to his home in rural and Birkacre rent in Chorley cotton mill, a trigger for the development of the city became an important industrial city in the Industrial Revolution.


Since 1774 the firm has hired 600 people, and within five years later expanded into a new location. He became the inventor in Scotland when he helped start the cotton industry. A large new factory in Birkacre, Lancashire, was destroyed, but the anti-machinery riots in 1779. Arkwright in 1775 to get some of the patents covering some of the process that he hoped to monopolize the power of the rapid development of industry, but Lancashire opinion strongly rejects an exclusive patent. In 1781 Arkwright tried and failed to maintain a patent monopoly in 1775. His case went to trial for years and failed to mention him in 1785, on the grounds that the specification is considered to have less and he took the idea from Leigh reed maker is Thomas Highs. Kay's story is that the watchmaker, has provided a plan for making a partnership with Arkwright. Also said that he was an arrogant.


In 1777 he rented Haarlem Mill in Wirksworth, Derbyshire where he installed the first steam engine for use on cotton spinning, though it is used to increase the engine power player who uses a water wheel is not turning the engine immediately.


Aggressive and independent, Arkwright proved a hard working person. He bought all the property and associates began to build factories in Manchester, Matlock, Bath, New Lanark (in collaboration with David Dale) and everywhere. Unlike most entrepreneurs, who are generally not from Christian or Anglican church, he embraced the Church of England.


Appreciation

Achievement of Arkwright is widely known, he became a high Sherriff in Derbyshire and given a peerage in 1786. Many of his fortune comes from the intellectual property rights. About 30,000 people were employed in 1785 at factories using Arkwright patents. He died at Willersley Castle, the castle is built with a view towards Cromford mills, on August 3, 1792 at the age of 59 leaving property worth £ 500,000. He is buried in the Church St. Giles in Matlock. His body was later moved to Church St. Mary in Cromford.


The Arkwright Society was formed after the 200th anniversary of Cromford Mill, now control the land and works to maintain the industrial heritage of the area.


Discoveries


Richard himself had assisted Thomas Highs, and there is strong evidence that supports the discovery of spinning frame by Highs, not by Arkwright. However, Highs can not take care of patents or develop the idea for lack of funds. Highs, who is also credited with the discovery of Spinning Jenny several years before James Hargreaves produced his work, it is likely got the idea of ​​a spinning frame of the work of John Wyatt and Lewis Paul in 1730's and 1740's.


The machine uses an uneven roll rotating at higher speeds to pull out the cotton fibers in a circle, before twisting and turning through the spindle mechanism. This can make cotton thread thin and strong enough to be rolled, or a length of fabric threads. Arkwright moved to Nottingham, forming a partnership with local businessmen Jedediah Strutt and Samuel Need, and then make a horse-powered mills. But in 1771, he turn it into a water-powered mill and built a new factory in the village of Cromford in Derbyshire.


Soon become a reality that a small town can not provide enough workers for his factory. So he built a lot of huts near the plant and bring in workers from outside the area. He also built houses Greyhound (Greyhound Hotel) which still stands in Cromford market square. Hotel is planned to be a museum Richard Arkwright. In 1776 he bought more land at Cromford, and in 1788 some land at Willersley, the provider where it is Peter Nightingale, uncle, ancestor of Florence Nightingale.

In 1775, Arkwright filed a patent for a carding machine, the first process before it starts spinning, replace the hand-carding mills used until then. High royalties it proposes to make the other two findings challenge the patent in court. The second patent invalidated, but only after he became rich.

Its main contribution is not fully in its discoveries but also discipline and factories that generate huge profits he made, which of course is much imitated. There are two thirteen hour work schedule per day including turnover time (overlap). The bell rang every morning and evening hours of 5 and the gate is closed promptly at 6 in the morning and afternoon. Anyone who is late is not only unable to work, but also lose more daily salary. Whole families are employed, with many children from the age of seven years, although later he was raised to ten years when the business is turning to the child Richard.


Arkwright mill premises to encourage families to move to Cromford. He gives off a week of the year, but with the condition they not be able to leave the village. On later life, he independently provides some simple education. Arkwright later known as the 'Father of the Industrial Revolution'.

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