Pramoedya Ananta Tur - Poets Indonesia

Pramoedya Ananta Tur - Poets Indonesia
Pramoedya Ananta Tur was born in Blora, Central Java on February 6, 1925. He is the eldest child in her family. His father was a teacher, while his mother's rice trade. The original name is Pramoedya Ananta Pramoedya Mastoer, as it is written in a collection of semi-autobiographical short story titled Stories From Blora. Because Mastoer surname (father's name) were deemed too aristocratic, he removes Java prefix "Mas" from the name and use the "Tur" as a surname. As the eldest son of Boedi Oetomo Institute figures, small Pram actually not so brilliant in lessons at school. Three times was the next grade in elementary school, her father thought of himself as a foolish child. As a result, after graduating from elementary school who lived under the harsh teaching of his father, his father, Mr. Mastoer, refused to register it to MULO (junior level).

He also continued his education at the school telegraph (Radio Vakschool) Surabaya at the expense of his mother. The cost for a mediocre school in Surabaya also almost makes Pram fail in the practice exams. At that time, without having the equipment, it is however still take the exam by only pretending to busy in addition to the brightest students. Even so, in general Pram values ​​quite well and he even graduated from school because of the outbreak of World War II in Asia, diplomas are sent from London he never received. then worked as a typist for the Japanese newspaper in Jakarta during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The independence of Indonesia, he followed the military groups in Java and in Jakarta are often placed at the end of the war of independence. He wrote short stories and books throughout his military career, and when the Dutch prison in Jakarta in 1948 and 1949. In the 1950s he lived in the Netherlands as part of a cultural exchange program, and when he returned to Indonesia he became a member of Lekra, one left-wing organizations in Indonesia. Writing style changed over time, as shown in his corruption, fiction criticism on the fall of the civil service in the trap of corruption. This created friction between him and the government of Sukarno.

During that time, he began studying the Chinese torture of Indonesia, then at the same time, she began to relate closely with writers in China. In particular, he published a series of letters with Chinese authors who discuss the history of Chinese in Indonesia, titled Hoakiau in Indonesia. He is a critic of the government ignoring the Java-centric needs and desires of other areas in Indonesia, and is famous for proposing that the government should be moved out of Java. In the 1960s he held the Soeharto as pro-Communist views Tiongkoknya. His book was banned from circulation, and he was detained without trial in Nusakambangan off the coast of Java, and finally on the island of Buru in eastern Indonesia.

He was forbidden to write during his incarceration on the island of Buru, but still manage to write his famous series of works entitled Earth of Mankind, serial 4 semi-fiction novel chronicles the history of Indonesia. Minke main character, a small Javanese nobility, reflected on the experience of RM Tirto Adisuryo a prominent movement in the colonial era who founded the organization and is recognized by SI Priyayi Pramoedya as the first national organization. His first volume was delivered orally at the fellow prisoner, and the rest is smuggled abroad to Australia and then the author's collection published in English and Indonesia. Pramoedya was released from custody on December 21, 1979 and obtain a letter of exemption in the law are innocent and not involved G30S/PKI, but still under house arrest in Jakarta until 1992, and the city jail and state prison until 1999, and is also required to report once a week to Kodim East Jakarta for about 2 years.

During that time he wrote Girl from the Coast, semi-fictional novel based on the experience of her own grandmother. He also wrote sang Silent One Mute (1995), based on the autobiographical writings he wrote for his daughter but was not allowed to be sent, and the Reverse Flow (1995). A complete edition of the singing Silent Mute translated into English by Willem Samuels, published in Indonesia by Hasta Mitra worked with Lontar Foundation in 1999 as The Mute's soliloquy: A Memoir

When Pramoedya get the Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1995, reported as many as 26 Indonesian literary figures wrote 'protest' to the Ramon Magsaysay Foundation. They do not agree, Pramoedya is accused of being "a spokeswoman at the same time most vicious executioner Lekra, hit, tackle, butchering and devour" at the Guided Democracy era, given inappropriate gifts and demanded repeal Pramoedya award bestowed. But a few days later, Taufik Ismail as the initiator, rectify the news. He said, instead demanding 'retraction', but warned "Pramoedya's who '. He said, many people do not know 'dark reputation' Pram first. And Magsaysay award is said to be a faux pas. But on the other hand, Mochtar Lubis even threaten return the Magsaysay prize is awarded to him in 1958, when Pram still be awarded the same prize.

Lubis also said, also will return the HB Jassin Magsaysay prize ever received. But, it turns out in the next news, HB Jassin even say anything else at all of the statements Mochtar Lubis. In its opinions on a variety of media, the 26 signatories of this petition was a victim of the pre-1965. And they require at Pram, to acknowledge and apologize of all the role of 'improper' in 'darkest period of creativity' in the days of Guided Democracy. Pram, said Mochtar Lubis, led the suppression of fellow artists who do not agree with him.

While Pramoedya himself judge all writings and speeches in the pre-1965 was nothing more than "class ordinary polemic 'which may be followed by anyone. He denied engaging in various acts of 'too much'. He also felt maligned, when the accused participated burn all books. He even suggested that his case be brought to trial only if the material is sufficient. If not enough, take it to an open forum, he said, but the terms I may answer and defend himself, he added. Since the New Order rule, Pramoedya never got the freedom to voice his own voice, and has several times he was attacked and beaten publicly in the newspaper. However, in exposition painter yell Joko, who also had been a prisoner on the island of Buru, he said Pramoedya as 'clerk'. Clerk jobs in question by Joko yell is Pramoedya had 'work' of the island of Buru officers as they ketiknya handyman.

In fact, according to Joko yell, Pramoedya better fate than most prisoners there. Status as a character artist who widely disseminated by the media internationally, making him a decent living with the facilities - especially when there are guests from the 'outside' who came Pramoedya would certainly be a 'star'. Pramoedya has written many columns and short articles that criticized the Indonesian government to date. He wrote a book in the Virgin Teens Military grip, the documentation is written in the style of Javanese women miserable being forced to be comfort women during the Japanese occupation. Everything was brought to the island of Buru where they suffered sexual violence, an end to live there rather than return to Java. Pramoedya made his acquaintance when he was a political prisoner on Buru Island during the 1970s. Many of his writings touched the theme of intercultural interaction; between the Netherlands, the kingdom of Java, the Javanese in general,

and Chinese. Many of his writings are also semi-autobiographical, in which he drew from his own experience. He continued to be active as a writer and columnist. He obtained a Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts 1995. He has also been considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He also won the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize XI 2000 and in 2004 Norwegian Authors' Union Award for his contributions to world literature. He completed his journey to North America in 1999 and received an award from the University of Michigan.

Pram romance is also not free from the influence of the reality of poverty is still plural descend even the writers and artists of today. His first marriage ended in divorce and Pram expulsion from the house-in-law because he obtained the result of writing that has not stabilized can not support his family. While he was still alive uncertain, one day, despite not having any money, he visited an exhibition in Indonesia's first book and saw one woman guard booth that caught his attention. He was desperate to come and get acquainted with a woman who was named Maemunah it. Every day he lingered accompany Maemunah sitting in the booth is like a guard. Even when President Sukarno also to visit and see these girls, he jokingly described the scene as "crocodile alligator preliminaries." Determination and any approach brings results, Maemunah always proved a faithful wife who accompanied him in all their ups and downs until now.

To the end he was actively writing, although his health had been declining due to old age and his love of smoking. On January 12, 2006, he was rumored to have two weeks lying ill at his home in Bojong Gede, Bogor, and was hospitalized. According to reports, Pramoedya had diabetes, shortness of breath and his heart was weakened. On February 6, 2006 at the Little Theatre Taman Ismail Marzuki, a special exhibition held on the cover of Pramoedya's work. The exhibition is both a birthday present to-81 to Pramoedya. Pram exhibition titled, The book presents the Young and the covers of books ever published in foreign countries. There are about 200 books he had translated into various languages ​​of the world.

On 27 April 2006, Pram was unconscious. The family finally decided to take him to the Sint Carolus Hospital that same day. Pram was diagnosed with pneumonia, a disease that has not been , plus the complications of renal, cardiac, and diabetes. Pram only lasted three days in the hospital. Once conscious, he was again asked to go home. Although the request was not approved doctors, Pram yearns to go home. Saturday, April 29, around 19:00, when I got home, his condition is much better. Although still critical, Pram was able to tilt the body and moving his hands. His condition had worsened again at 20.00. Pram is still able to smile and make a fist when the writer Eka Budianta visit. Pram also laughed when prompted fans to see him that Soeharto was still alive. Pram's condition was improving, and more critical. Pram then had to remove the IV and said that he was cured. He then asked for spoon-fed oatmeal and asked for cigarettes. But, of course, the request was failed the family. They just put a cigarette in your mouth without lighting it Pram. These conditions lasted until 22.00.

After that, several times he re-experiencing a critical period. The family decided to hold tahlilan to pray Pram. Pram tidal condition persists until around 2:00. At that time, he declared that God would immediately pick him up. "Push it to me," he said. However, friends and relatives who keep encouraging Pram was tired of life. Pram a beautiful house not only filled with children, grandchildren and great-grandson. But, my friends come up to his fans waiting Pram. News of the death Pram had circulated since at 03:00. Neighbors have received the sad news. However, at 05.00, they come back to hear that Pram is still alive. Finally, when he died on Saturday, Pram was moaning, "I Just End. Burn me now," he said.

On 30 April 2006 at 08:55 Pramoedya died at the age of 81 years. Hundreds of mourners appeared at the house and yard at Jalan Multikarya Pram II No. 26, Utan Kayu, East Jakarta. Mourners in attendance, among others Sitor Situmorang, Erry Riyana Hardjapamekas, Nurul Arifin and husband, Usman Hamid, Putu Wijaya, Gunawan Mohamad, Gus Solah, Ratna Sarumpaet, Budiman Sujatmiko, and dozens of activists, writers, and intellectuals. There were also the Minister of Culture and Tourism Jero Wacik. Seen some signs of mourning wreaths, among others, of KontraS, Vice President Jusuf Kalla, actress Happy Salma, the board of Struggle PDI, Jakarta Arts Council, and others. Pram friends who had been detained on the island of Buru also attended the funeral. Including the young fans of Pram. The body is washed at 12.30 pm, then disalatkan. After that, taken out of the house to put into an ambulance that took TPU Rubber Pram to the bivouac. There was a song sung Internationale and Blood Juang among the mourners.


Freedom to Write Award from PEN American Center, U.S., 1988
Award from The Fund for Free Expression, New York, USA, 1989
Wertheim Award, "for his Meritorious services to the struggle for Emancipation of Indonesian people", from The Wertheim Foundation, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1995
Ramon Magsaysay Award, "for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Arts, in recognation of his illuminating with brilliant stories the historical awakening, and modern experience of Indonesian people", of the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation, Manila, Philippines, 1995
Madanjeet Singh Prize UNESCO, "in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the promotion of tolerance and non-violence" of UNESCO, France, 1996
Doctor of Humane Letters, "in recognition of his remarkable imagination and distinguished literary Contributions, his example to all WHO oppose Tyranny, and his highly principled struggle for intellectual freedom" from the University of Michigan, Madison, USA, 1999
Chancellor's Distinguished Honor Award, "for his outstanding literary archievements and for his Contributions to ethnic tolerance and global understanding", of the University of California, Berkeley, USA, 1999
Chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Letters, of Le Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication Republique, Paris, France, 1999
New York Foundation for the Arts Award, New York, USA, 2000
Cultural Fukuoka Grand Prize (Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize), Japan, 2000
The Norwegian Authors Union, 2004
Centenario Pablo Neruda, Chile, 2004


Members of the Netherlands Center, while still on the island of Buru, 1978
Lifetime honorary member of International PEN Center Australia, 1982
Honorary member of PEN Center, Sweden, 1982
Honorary member of PEN American Center, U.S., 1987
Deutschsweizeriches PEN member, Zentrum, Switzerland, 1988
English International PEN Center Award, UK, 1992
International PEN Association of Writers Award Zentrum Deutschland, Germany, 1999

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