Robert Dennard -First Inventor of RAM

Robert Dennard 
Robert Dennard (born 5 September, 1932) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. Dennard was born in Terrell, Texas, USA. He received B.S. and M.S. Electrical Engineering from Southern Methodist University, Dallas, in 1954 and 1956, respectively. He received his Ph.D. Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1958. spent his professional career as a researcher for International Business Machines.

In 1968, he created a dynamic random access memory (DRAM). Dennard also among the first to recognize the tremendous potential of the MOSFET downsizing. Scaling theory he and his colleagues formulated in 1974 is essentially observed that MOSFETs will continue to function as voltage-controlled switch while all key services such as layout density, operating speed, and energy efficiency will improve provided geometric dimensions, voltage, and doping concentrations consistent scaly like to maintain the same electric field. This property underlies Moore's Law and the evolution of microelectronics over the past decade.

What is RAM?

The so-called memory on the PC, actually refers to a RAM (Random Access Memory). a computer need RAM for storing data and instructions needed to complete a command (task). Data or instructions that are specifically dedicated to storing data that is not accommodated from RAM. A special section dedicated to the hard drive is referred to as virtual memory. Paging file, or also known as a swapfile on a Windows operating system is one example of virtual memory. If the paging file is accessed frequently, it will very significantly reduce PC performance.

As lustrasi, CPU only takes 200 ns (nano second) to access data in RAM. While access to virtual memory on disk, the CPU will take about 12 million ns. Or the comparison of CPU time needed to access the paging files on disk about 60,000 times longer than if the CPU to access data from RAM. In addition to the performance of PC was slowing dramatically, there are other signs. Such as excessive disk access. Even when you are not ordering a new process. Such as opening a file, the save data, or something similar.

Hard drive continues to work, because the CPU needs data paging file stored on it. It does not always happen. When loading the burden of PC is low, memory was still able to hold data and instructions are active. When the PC full load, and loading the data and instruction more and more, began to run out of memory. And if this is indeed happening on your PC, can be one of the benchmarks that your system requires a larger RAM capacity.

the types until now

- SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

- NV-RAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory)

- DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

- DRAM FPM (Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory)

- EDO RAM (Extended Data Output Dynamic Random Access Memory)

- DR DRAM (Direct Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory)

- SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)

- DDR (Double Data Rate) - DDR2 (Double Data Rate 2)

- DDR3 (Double Data Rate 3)

The evolution of RAM

1. RAM, is the world's first memroy that was developed by the company INTEL in 1968,

2. D R A MTwo years after IBM launched the RAM as well in 1970 and in Beru label Dynamic Random Access Memory.

3. FP RAMFast Page Mode DRAM FPM DRAM or shortened by about the year 1987 was found more frequently in ato who are familiar with the name of the FPM. FPM allows faster data transfer on the line (row) of the same from the previous memory types. FPM works in the frequency range 16MHz to 66MHz with an access time of about 50ns. Besides FPM is able to process data transfer (bandwidth) of 188.71 Mega Bytes (MB) per second.

4. EDO RAMIn 1995, the Extended Data Output create a Dynamic Random Access Memory (EDO DRAM), which is a refinement of the FPM, he has a 50ns access speed.

5. SDRAM PC66In early 1996 until late 1997 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM). SDRAM is then better known as the PC66 because it works on a 66MHz bus frequency, is usually found on a computer Pentium 2-3, and he has a nature requiring considerable effort.

6. PC100 SDRAMSame as SDRAM, PC100 SDRAM for computers working on a pentium II 100MHz bus. Because the bus system works at a frequency of 100MHz while Intel still wants to use SDRAM memory system, it is developing SDRAM memory that can work at 100MHz bus frequency

7. DR DRAMIn 1999, Rambus memory system ngebuat who was named Direct Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory, capable of flowing at 1.6 GB of data per second! (1GB = 1000MHz)

8. PC800 RDRAMThe same year also develop om Rambus RDRAM PC800 memorynya be, with a voltage of 2.5 volts.

9. PC133 SDRAMMemory was developed in 1999, Emori SDRAM has not been abandoned, even by the Vikings, even more enhanced. As the name implies, PC133 SDRAM memory works at 133MHz bus frequency with an access time of 7.5 ns

10. PC150 SDRAMIn 2000, SDRAM began to be developed in which the memory currently in use on ferkuensi to 150MHz.

11. DDR SDRAMIn the same year th, 2000, SDRAM at up to double reinforced. If the regular SDRAM is only able to run the line or instruction printah once every one unit of time the bus frequency, the DDR SDRAM can execute two instructions all in the same unit time. The technique used is to use the full one frequency.

12. DDR RAMIn the same year INTEL and AMD, to compete with the strong and tight in improving the performance of CPU speed, obstacles, however, because when increasing the memory bus to 133 Mhz needs Memory (RAM) will be greater.

13. DDR2 RAMDDR2 memory is the most berredar currently on the market, proven air pentium 4 computers up a lot of use of this memory type. Use of this much memory in use for this type of electrical power required implanted at 1.8 Volt performance thus saving electricity / voltage coming into the computer, this type kempangkan Ram in 2005.

14. DDR3 RAMIn late 2007 Intel developed a DDR3 memory with the label, with the use of electric power 1.5 Volt makes memory type is more riveting because of the speed read it very fast compared to some previous ram memory evolved.

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