History of Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad bin Abdullah (Arabic:   570/571 Mecca [مكة] / [مكه] - June 8, 632 Medina),  is the carrier of the teachings of Islam, and believed by Muslims as a prophet and (Apostle) is last. According sirah (biography), which recorded about Muhammad, he mentioned was born about 20 April 570/571, in Mecca (Makkah) and died on 8 June 632 at Medina at the age of 63 years. Both towns are located in the Hejaz (Saudi Arabia today). He haram depicted in sculptures or illustrations.

Michael H. Hart in his book The 100 judge Muhammad as the most influential figures in human history. According to Hart, Muhammad was the only one who managed to achieve remarkable success in both spiritual and social. Hart noted that Muhammad was able to manage a nation that initially selfish, barbaric, backward and divided by tribal sentiments, become a developed nation in the economic, cultural and military, and even able to defeat the Roman army who was then the world's leading military power in the battle .


"Muhammad" is a language derived from the Semitic root word 'HMD' which in Arabic means "he who is blessed". Moreover in one verse of the Qur'an [7], Muhammad called by the name "Ahmad" (أحمد), which in Arabic also means "praiseworthy".
Prior to the prophethood, Muhammad got two nicknames from the Quraysh tribe (the largest tribe in Makkah who is also the tribe of Muhammad) that Al-Amin, which means "one who can be trusted" and As-Saadiq, which means "true". After the prophetic his friends call him by his title of Apostle Allāh (رسول الله), then add a sentence sal 'alayhi wasallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم, which means "may God give him happiness and safety"; often abbreviated as "SAW" or "SAW" ) after his name.
Muhammad also earned the nickname Abu al-Qasim which means "father of Qasim", since Muhammad never had a son named Qasim, but he died before reaching adulthood.


Muhammad pedigree of both parents return to Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka'b bin bin Ghalib bin Lu'ay Fihr (Quraish) bin Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais) Kinanah bin bin bin Khuzaimah Mudrikah (Amir) bin Ilyas bin Mudar Bin Nizar Ma `ad bin Adnan bin.

Adnan is the offspring of men to seven of Ismail bin Ibrahim, the offspring of Sam son of Noah. [10] Muhammad was born on Monday, 12 Rabi al beginning of year 571 AD (better known as the Year of the Elephant).

More complete genealogy from Adam to Muhammad is, Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Hashim bin Abdul Mutthalib bin Abdul Manaf bin Qusayy bin Murrah bin Ka'b bin Kilab Luay bin bin bin Ghalib Fihr (Quraish) bin Malik bin bin Kinanah Nadhr Mudrikah bin bin bin Khuzayma Elias bin Mudar Bin Nizar bin Adnan bin Ma'ad Udad bin bin bin al-Muqawwam Nahur Ya'rub bin bin bin Tayrah Nabit Yasyjub bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin bin Tarih (Azar) bin Nahur bin Saru 'bin Ra'u Falikh bin bin Aybir Syalikh bin bin bin Sam bin Noah Arfakhsyad Lamikh bin bin bin Akhnukh Mutusyalikh Mahlil bin bin bin Yarda Qinan bin Yanish Syits bin Adam bin.

Nasab is mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishak ibn Yasar al-Madani in one of his acts. Adnan nasab Prophet until approved by the clergy, whereas after Adnan disagree. The definition of the Quraish was the son Fihr bin Malik bin or an-Nadhr Kinanah.



The authors sirah (biography) of Muhammad is generally agreed that he was born in the Year of the Elephant, the year 570 AD, which is in the failure of Abraha attacked Mecca. Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca, in the southern Arabian Peninsula, a place that when it is the most backward regions in the world, far from the center of commerce, arts, and science. His father, Abdullah, died in the course of trade in Medina, who was then called Yathrib, when Muhammad was still in the womb. He left the property five camels, a flock of sheep and a slave woman named Umm Ayman who then take care of the Prophet.

By the time Muhammad was six years old, his mother Aminah bint Wahab him to Yathrib (now Medina) to visit his family and visit his grave. But on the way home, his mother fell ill. After a few days, Aminah died in Abwa 'which is located not far from Yathrib, and was buried there. [9] After his mother died, Muhammad kept by his grandfather,' Abd al-Muttalib. After his grandfather died, he was guarded by his uncle, Abu Talib. When he is asked to herding his goats around Mecca and often accompanied his uncle in the domestic affairs of its trading to Sham (Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine.

Almost all the hadith scholars and historians agree that Muhammed was born in the month of Rabi ', although they disagree about the date. Among Shiites, according to the direction of the priest who is a direct descendant of Muhammad, believed that he was born on Friday, 17 Rabi ', while Sunnis believe that he was born on Monday, 12 Rabi' (August 2, 570 M).

Make friends with Khadijah

When Muhammad reached the age of adolescence and growing into an adult, he began studying martial arts and archery, nor the knowledge to increase their skills in trade. Trade becomes a common practice and is regarded as one of a stable income. Muhammad often accompanied his uncle to trade to the north and the news about the honesty and trustworthy character spread rapidly, making it much trusted as an intermediary dealer merchandise Mecca residents.

One person who heard about the news of young people who are honest and trustworthy in a trade with a widow named Khadijah. He is someone who has a high status among the Arab tribes. As a merchant, he also often send the merchandise to various corners of the Arab region in the country. Khadijah Muhammad's reputation makes entrusted to manage merchandise Khadijah, Muhammad promised to be paid by him twice and was very impressed when returning Khadijah Muhammad brought the trade of more than usual.

Over time Muhammad eventually fell in love with Khadijah, they were married at the time of Muhammad was 25 years old. At that Khadijah was approaching the age of 40 years old, but he still has a captivating beauty that can be Muhammad. Much age difference and status held by the widow Khadijah did not become an obstacle for them, though at the time the Quraysh tribe has a culture that is more about the marriage with a girl rather than a widow. Although their wealth grew, Muhammad lived as a simple man, he prefers to use his money for things more important.

He earned his

When Muhammad was 35 years old, he was with the Quraysh in the repair of the Kaaba. At the time the leaders of the Quraysh tribe arguing about who is entitled to put the Black Stone, Muhammad could fix the problem and provide fair settlement. At that time he was known among the Arab tribes because its properties are commendable. His people loved him, until finally he obtained his Al-Amin, which means "one who can be trusted".

Also narrated that Muhammad is the one who believed so strongly in the unity of God. He lived a very simple way and resent the properties of greedy, arrogant and conceited are prevalent among the Arabs at that time. He was known to care for the poor, widows and children unable to orphans and share the pain by trying to help them. He also avoids all the crimes that have been entrenched in the Arab nation at that time such as gambling, drinking, abusive behavior, etc., so he was known as As-Saadiq, which means "true".


Muhammad was born in the middle of the backward communities who are happy with the violence and fighting and by the age of 40, he was often alone into the Cave of Hira 'cave hill about 6 miles east of Mecca, which was then known as Jabal An Nur. Days he could engage in meditation (contemplation) and search for peace and his attitude was regarded as so contrary to the Arab culture of the era who likes to huddle. From here, he often thinks deeply, and ask God to destroy paganism and ignorance.

Muhammad was first appointed as apostles on the night of 17 Ramadan / M 611 August 6, narrated by the angel Gabriel came and read the first sura of the Quran is presented to Muhammad, the surah Al-Alaq. Muhammad instructed to read a verse that has been delivered to him, but he was evasive, saying he could not read. Gabriel repeated three times asking Muhammad to read, but the answer remains the same. Gabriel said:

"Read with the name of your Lord who created man from a clot. Read, with the name of the merciful Lord, who taught man by the hand (writing, reading). He taught man what he did not know. (Al-Alaq 96: 1-5) "

Muhammad was 40 years 6 months and 8 days at a time when the first paragraph of his appointment as a messenger delivered to him according to the calculation of lunar year (calendar by month), or 39 years 3 months 8 days according to the calculation of the year or years Syamsiah BC (based on the solar calendar). After the incident at the Cave of Hira, Muhammad returned to his home, his body temperature was reported he felt alternately hot and cold by what had just happened and asked her to give him a blanket.

It is related also to more reassuring him, Khadijah took Muhammad went to his cousin who is also a Christian is Waraqa bin Nawfal. Waraqah many knew the prophecies about the last prophet of the holy books of Christians and Jews. Hearing stories experienced by Muhammad, Waraqah said, that he had been chosen by God to be a prophet. Then Waraqah mention that An-Namus al-Akbar (Angel Gabriel) came to him, his people will say that he was an impostor, they will be hostile and fight it.

Muhammad received the Quran gradually within a period of 23 years. The verses are derived based on factual events that are happening, so that almost every verse the Quran down accompanied by Asbabun Nuzul (cause / event underlying decline paragraph). The verses are dropped as far as it is collected as a compilation called, also called Al Mushaf Al-Qur ʾ an (reading).

Some verses of the Quran have Izhar interpretation or understanding (obviously), especially the verses of the Islamic law, trade law, marriage law and regulations set by the foundation of Islam in other aspects. While some other verses revealed to Muhammad vague sense, in the sense that there needs to be more in-depth interpretation and assessment to ensure the meaning contained in it, in this case the most direct examples of Muhammad gave these verses in social interaction and religious everyday , so that his followers follow him as an example and a standard of conduct and propriety in public life bertata.

Getting followers

The main article for this section are: al-As-Sabiqun Awwalun
During the first three years since his appointment as an apostle, Muhammad is only a limited spread of Islam in kalanganteman close friends and relatives, this is to prevent the onset of acute and massive reaction from the Arabs at that time that was very assimilated culturally with immoral actions, which in this context is contrary to what would be taken and offered by Muhammad. Most of those who trust and believe in the teachings of Muhammad in the early days were members of families and groups of ordinary people close to him in everyday life, such as Khadijah, Ali, Zaid bin Harithah and Bilal. But at the beginning of the year 613, Muhammad publicly announcing the religion of Islam. After so long a lot of leaders of the Arabs as Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn Affan, Zubair bin Al Awwam, Abdul Rahman bin Auf, Ubaidah bin Harith, Amr bin Nufail are then brought into the religion of Muhammad. All of those first followers of Islam called al-As-Sabiqun Awwalun or the first.

The spread of Islam

Around the year 613 AD, three years after Islam spread silently, Muhammad began to spread Islam openly to the people of Mecca, the response he has received a very hard and massive, this is because the teachings of Islam which brought him in conflict with what has become a cultural and mindset of the people of Mecca at that time. Meccan leader Abu Jahl said that Muhammad was insane to be destructive to the lives of people of Mecca, due to stiff opposition from the people who come jahiliyyah in Mecca and the power possessed by the leaders of Quraysh who opposed it, many followers of Muhammad and early Islam were tortured, persecuted, humiliated , deposed and excommunicated from the community association Mecca.

Although treated, he keeps getting followers in large numbers, his followers are then spread his message through to the domestic trade Sham, Persia, and the Arabian peninsula. After that, many people are curious and interested then come to Mecca and Medina to hear directly from Muhammad, appearance and well-known personality who has made it easier to get sympathy and support in larger quantities. It is becoming increasingly easier when Umar bin Khattab and a large number of other leaders of Quraish tribe officials decided to embrace the teachings of Islam, although many also be given the antipathy that time a very large tribal sentiment in Mecca and Medina. Muhammad also recorded a lot of followers from the country Farsi (now Iran), one of which is carrying Salman al-Farisi, a Persian scientist who later became the companions of Muhammad.

Torture experienced by almost all followers of Islam during this period the thrust behind the idea to migrate (move) to Habsyah (now Ethiopia). Negus or king Habsyah, allowing the Muslims emigrated to the country and protect them from pressure on the rulers of Mecca. Muhammad himself, in 622 hijra to Yathrib, a city which is about 200 miles (320 km) north of Mecca.

Migrated to Medina

Arabs from different tribes came to Mecca each year to beziarah into the temple or Ka'bah, they run a variety of religious traditions in the visit. Muhammad saw this as an opportunity to spread the teachings of Islam. Among those who are interested in teaching is a bunch of people from Yathrib. They came to Muhammad and a few people who have first embraced Islam from Mecca at a place called Aqabah in secret. After embracing Islam, they are then sworn to protect the followers of Islam and Muhammad from Mecca residents cruelty.

The following year, a bunch of Islamic society from Yathrib came back to Mecca, where they met Muhammad in their previous meeting. Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, the uncle who had not yet embraced Islam, was also present at the meeting. They invited the Muslims of Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, Mecca because the situation is not conducive to the security of the followers of Islam. Muhammad eventually accepted the invitation and decided to emigrate to Yathrib in 622 AD

Knowing that many followers of Islam intend to leave Mecca, Mecca tried mengcegahnya public ignorance, they think that if allowed to emigrate to Yathrib, Muhammad would have the opportunity to develop the Islamic religion into areas far wider. After a little over two months he and his followers of Islam are involved in the war and a series of agreements, the Muslim community finally moved from Mecca to Yathrib, later after the arrival of the group of Makkah in 622 known as Medina or Madinatun Prophet (city of the Prophet).

In Medina, the government (the Caliphate) is realized under the leadership of Islam Muhammad. Muslims are free to worship (salat) and the community in Medina, as well as Christian and Jewish minorities. In the period after the migration to Medina, Muhammad received a series of attacks, terror, murder and war threats he received from the ruler of Mecca, but everything can be solved more easily by Muslims who had now united in Medina.

Conquest of Mecca

In 629 M, H-8 years after the migration to Medina, Muhammad went back to Makkah to bring the Muslim army of 10,000 men, while he intends to conquer the city of Mecca and unite the inhabitants of Mecca and medina. Ruler of Mecca who do not have adequate defense then agreed to surrender the city of Mecca without opposition, on the condition of Mecca will be submitted next year. Muhammad agreed, and when the following year when he returned, he has managed to unite the Mecca and Medina, and more broadly at that time he has managed to spread Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula.

Muhammad led the pilgrimage of Muslims, destroy all existing idols around the Kaaba, and then give a general amnesty and enforcing Islamic laws in the city of Mecca.


Like the earlier prophets and apostles, Muhammad provided irhasat (sign) of the coming of a prophet, as believed by Muslims have been told in scripture beberapan divine religions, is told also occur during the sign in the womb, childhood and adolescence. Muhammad is believed to be a miracle for his prophetic.

Muslims believe that Muhammad is the greatest miracle of the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book. This is because Arab culture at that time still did not know the barbaric and civilization, but by the Qur'an it is turned upside down because the Qur'an brings a lot of tough rules that establish the basics of the new culture in the Arab world that was not previously civilized as well as eliminating the social roots of crime are rooted in the Arab world, as well as in the days to deliver its adherents closer to reaching the world's highest level of civilization of its time.

Another miracle is recorded and is widely believed by Muslims is the splitting of the month, and Mi'raj Isra journey from Medina to Jerusalem in a very short time. Muhammad's other abilities are a lot of intelligence and personality as well as still being a role model praised the followers of Islam to the present.

Physical characteristics of Muhammad

The figure of Muhammad is described by one istinya Aisha, his cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, his companions, and the last person alive who was then time to see him in person, namely Abu Taufik is colored slightly reddish curly hair  breaks down to his shoulders. Pinkish white, the face tends to round with dark eyes and long eyelashes. No mustache and beard along sekepalan palms. Bone big head and broad shoulders. Are boned and athletic. Thick fingers and toes and elongated tapering.

Tend to be fast pace and never stick your feet and move quickly and surely. Muhammad is uniquely characterized by his companions.
Muhammad is described as being white and black with a gray beard.
In another hadith Muhammad explained the physical style, which he was bodied, light-colored skin is not white nor black. Wavy hair. When Muhammad died in the hair growing gray hair and beard is still small.

Ali added that Muhammad had slightly wavy hair straight. Not fat and not too large, berperawak good and upright. Skin color bright, black eyes with long lashes. Strong joints chest, muscular arms and legs. Do not have thick fur, but only slightly from the chest to his navel. If you talk to someone, then he will confront his people for it with great interest. In between his shoulders there is a prophetic sign. Muhammad was a good person at heart and honest, the most coveted, and the best offspring. Anyone who is approached and hang out with him it will immediately feel respected, reverence, respect and love.

His nose was slightly curved and shiny when exposed to light, and looked rather prominent if the first time I saw it when it actually does. Full beard but flat to the cheek. His mouth was, bright white teeth and a bit tenuous. Nice and sturdy shoulders, like a silver cast. Other limbs and the normal proportion. Chest and waist balanced by size. Shoulder blades wide enough, his body parts are not covered in fur dense, clean and radiant. Unless fuzz that grows from the chest to the navel.

Upper arms and hairy chest. Wrist is long, rather wide palms and feet and hands contain, fingers and toes quite slim. If it goes a little inclined to step forward with grace and running quickly and often look down than up. If dealing with a person then he looked at him with rapt attention and never glared at someone and soothing view. Always running a bit behind, especially if the time to travel long distances and he always greets others first.
From the story of Jabir narrated that Muhammad ibn Samurah have a rather wide mouth, the eyes look too red stripes and heel trim. Jabir (ra) also reported that he had the opportunity to see Muhammad in the moonlight, he also noticed that the moon also, for him Muhammad more beautiful than the moon.

Abu Ishaq argued that, Bara'a bin Aazib once said, that Muhammad is more like the color a bright full moon.

Abu Hurairah said that Muhammad is very beautiful, such as formed of silver. His hair is wavy and tends to Abu Hurairah had never seen anyone better than and more handsome than Muhammad, the color of his face as bright as the sun and never see the person as soon as possible. As if the ground rolled by Muhammad measures if it is running. It is said that if Abu Huraira and others tried to keep the way of Muhammad, and he looks like a leisurely walk alone.

Jabir bin Abdullah said, Muhammad once said that he had never seen a picture of the prophets. Among these are Moses boned slender as those of the tribe Shannah, and saw Jesus-like one of his companions named Urwa ibn Mas'ud and when he saw Ibrahim said to be very similar to himself (Muhammad), then Muhammad also said that he had look similar to the Angel Gabriel Dehya Kalbi.

Said al Jahiri said that he had heard Abu Taufik said that at present there are no more people alive who had seen firsthand Muhammad Muhammad but himself and has a very bright countenance and perawakanna very good.

Ibn Abbas says that Muhammad was a little loose front teeth are not too tight and if bericara look sparkling white.


During his lifetime Muhammad married a woman 11 or 13 people (there is a difference of opinion on this subject). At the age of 25 years he married Khadijah, which lasted for 25 years until Khadija wafat.Pernikahan is described very happy, so when the death of Khadijah (which coincides with the death of his uncle Abu Talib) is called a year of sadness.

After the death of Khadijah, Khawla bint Hakim suggested kepadanyauntuk Sauda bint Zama married (a widow) or Aisha (the daughter of Abu Bakr, where Muhammad finally marrying the two. Then after that Muhammad married several women noted again until the total number of about 11 people, of which nine of them still alive after the death of Muhammad.

Historians such as Watt and Esposito argue that most of the marriage was intended to strengthen political ties (according to Arab culture), or providing a livelihood for widows (widows was more difficult to get married because of a culture that emphasizes marriage with a virgin).

The difference with the previous prophets and messengers

In the mission of preaching, Muslims believe that Muhammad was sent by God to be a prophet for all mankind , whereas previously only the prophets and messengers were sent to each of his people as the only prophet Moses was sent to the Children of Israel.

While the similarity with the doctrine that brought Muhammad is the prophet and apostles before both taught the oneness of God, which is testimony that God has the right to be worshiped only Allah.

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