Biography of Charles Darwin - The inventor of the theory of evolution

Same is true with the birth of Abraham Lincoln, February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Charles Darwin was the inventor of the theory of organic evolution in the sense that natural selection is at the age of sixteen entered the University of Edinburgh to study medicine, but whether he considered the science of medicine and anatomy that makes bored. Shortly thereafter he moved to Cambridge to learn elements of office administration. Even so, hunt and ride horses in Cambridge faored much more than learning science. And even so, he nonetheless still able to captivate the attention of one of the Grand Masters are encouraged to participate in the investigation voyage aboard HMS Beagle as a naturalist. At first his father objected to this designation. She thought the trip was only a pretext just kind of made a reluctant Darwin with serious work. Fortunately, later the father could be persuaded and to bless the journey which ultimately proved to be a journey of the most valuable in the history of European science.
Darwin began to go sailing aboard the Beagle in 1831. At that time he was only twenty-two years. In the five-year voyage, the ship Beagle sailed the world, scour the coast of South America in an exciting pace, explore a deserted remote Galapagos Islands, mengambah in the Pacific islands, in Ocean Indonesia and the southern Atlantic Ocean. In perkelanaan, Darwin witnessed many natural wonders, visit the primitive tribes, found a large number of fossils, examine the various kinds of plants and animal species. Furthermore, he made a lot of notes on anything that passes in front of his eyes. These records are the basic ingredient for almost all his work at a later date. From these records are essentially ideas, and events as well as his experience so supporting his theories.
1. Travel by Beagle
Survey Beagle lasted five years. Darwin spent two-thirds of this time to menjelajani mainland. He investigates a wide range of appearances geological, fossil and living organisms, and meet a wide range of people, both indigenous and colonial societies. He methodically collected a large number of specimens, many of them new to science. This confirmed his reputation as a naturalist and made it one of the pioneers in the field of ecology, particularly the understanding of biokoenosis. The records show a lengthy terincinya gifts to build the theory and form the basis for his work in the future, as well as providing an anthropological understanding of social, political in-depth about the areas he visited.
In the voyage, Darwin read Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology (Principles of Geology), which explains the geological appearance as a result of gradual processes over many a long period, and wrote letters to his family that he saw the forms of land "as if he has the eyes of Lyell's ": he saw the plains of thin layers (shingle) are steep and the shells of Patagonia as an ascending beaches. In Chile he experienced an earthquake and record the basics of sea shells that had been washed with above high tide showing that the land has been rising, and even in high places in the Andes, he can collect sea shells. He makes the theory that atolls, coral atolls form on volcanic mountains sinking, a notion that was confirmed when he saw the Beagle probe Cocos (Keeling).
In South America he found the fossils of the extinct giant mammals, teermasuk megatheria and gliptodon in layers that do not show signs or catastrophic climate change. Occasionally he mengangggap them similar to the species in Africa, but after the voyage Richard Owen showed that the remains were from the animals associated with the creatures living in the same place. In Argentina two species of rhea had separate areas but overlap. In the Galapagos Islands, Darwin found that mockingbirds differ from one island to another, and when he returned to Britain kepadnya shown that turtles and tortoises Galapagos finches also vary depending on the species of each island that they inhabit. Animals Australia marsupial rat kangaroo and the platypus are the animals very strange that he thinks "People who do not believe it ... probably would have said 'Surely two distinct Creator has worked'." He was puzzled by what he saw, and ssementara in the first edition of The Voyage of the Beagle (Beagle voyage in) he describes the distribution of species based on the ideas of Charles Lyell's "centers of creation", in recent editions of the Journal, he begin to imagine the use of the Galápagos Islands fauna as evidence for evolution: "people might actually expect that from a small number of native birds in this archipelago, one species has been taken and modified for different purposes."
Three indigenous missionaries returned by the Beagle to Tierra del Fuego. They have diberadabkan in England for two years, but their relatives in the eyes of Darwin looked "wild", a little above the beast. Within a year, the missionaries had returned to their hard lives and primitive, but they were more like him and do not want to go back to the civilized world. This experience and the rejection of Darwin against slavery and other inhumane treatment seen in other places, such as mistreatment of the natives by the British colonists in Tasmania convinced him that there is no moral justification whatsoever to treat other people badly based on the concept race. Now he argues that humanity is not too far from the animals, in contrast to what is believed by his fellow clerics.
From ages 12 to 17 years, Newton was educated at Kings School The school is located in Grantham (his signature is still there in the school library). His family issued a Newton from school on the grounds that he was a farmer only, however, Newton does not look like his new job. But in the end after convincing his family and his mother with the help of his uncle and mentor, Newton can finish school at the age of 18 with a satisfactory value.
While on the ship, Darwin suffered seasickness. In October 1833 he got a fever in Argentina, and in July 1834, when returning from the mountains of the Andes to Valparaíso, he fell ill and was forced to stay in bed for a month. Since 1837 Darwin repeatedly suffered from abdominal pain, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, tremor, and various other symptoms. All these symptoms are especially affected him at times when she felt depressed, such as when attending meetings or dealing with disputes about the theory. The cause of Darwin's illness is not known in his lifetime, and attempts to take care not much success. Speculation has recently mentioned that he was in South America Chagas disease due to insect bites, which cause many problems later. Other causes may include problems of psycho-biological and Ménière's disease.
2. Careers in science, theory formation
When I was in cruise, Henslow carefully strengthening his former pupil's reputation by giving a number of naturalists terpilh access to fossil specimens and printed copies of Darwin's geological writings. When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Darwin has become well known in scientific circles. He visited his family in Shrewsbury and his father developed the savings to Darwin could be a scientist who is supported by its own funds. Then Darwin went to Cambridge and persuaded Henslow to work on botanical descriptions of modern plants he had collected. After that Darwin traveled to institutions in London to find the best naturalists available to describe the other collections for publication in a timely manner. Charles Lyell who was eager to see Darwin on October 29 and introduced him to Richard Owen an anatomist who is on the rise. After working on a collection of fossil bones of the Association of Surgeons of Darwin in his kingdom, Owen caused great surprise by revealing that some of it comes from the rats and similar animals that have been creeping giant extinct. This enhances the reputation of Darwin. With the enthusiastic support of Lyell, Darwin delivered the first paper to the Geological Society of London on January 4, 1837, and said that the soil of South America are rising slowly. On the same day Darwin presents examples of mammals and birds to the zoological Society of London. Mammalian animals were taken by George R. Waterhouse. Although the birds seem to like the new thinking came later, John Gould, a bird expert reveals that what is thought to Darwin as "Wren", blackbirds, and finches are somewhat different from the Galapagos were all finches, but each each is a different species. Others on the Beagle, including FitzRoy also been collecting these birds and more careful with their records, to allow Darwin discovered the island where each species was derived.
In London, Charles lived with his brother, Erasmus, a free thinker. At dinner parties he met with a number of savants who argue that God has set his previous life with the laws of nature, rather than with the wonderful creations for a while. Friend of his brother, Ms.. Harriet Martineau was a writer whose stories promoting reforms Whig Malthusian Law of the poor. Scientific circles excited with ideas of transmutation of species controversially associated with Radical furor. Darwin would prefer Dear friends, the Cambridge professor, though his ideas beyond their belief that natural history must justify religion and social order.
On February 17, 1837, Lyell used his presidential address at the Geographical Society to present Owen's findings to determine the date the fossils Darwin, and suggests the inference that species of animals that have been pu nah was related to the species of the existing now in the same place. At the same meeting Darwin was elected to the Society's Council. He has been invited by FitzRoy to contribute a paper in the Journal based on his field notes as part of the natural history of the captain of the Beagle voyage report. Now he is immersed in writing a book about the geology of South America. At the same time he speculated on transmutation in the Red Book Notes telha its commencement on the Beagle. An other project is the start getting reports of experts about the collection, published as a series of publications Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle), and Henslow used his contacts to arrange the provision of £ 1,000 from the Treasury to sponsor. Darwin completed writing his Journal around 20 June when King William IV died and the Victorian era began. In mid July he started the book notes "B" was the secret of transmutation, and developed the hypothesis that in which every island of the Galapagos Islands has its own kind of tortoises, all of it comes from a species of turtles and have been adjusting to island different islands in different ways.
Worthy of note, the theory of Darwin formulated the theory of genetic ottoman or even anything he does not know anything about that knowledge. In Darwin's time, nobody special schools of the particulars of how a next generation. Although Gregor Mendel is finalizing the laws of heredity in the early years coincided with the time Darwin wrote and published his book which makes history, works of Mendel that support Darwin's theory is so perfect, almost entirely ignored Mendel people until 1900, when Darwin's theory has so well-established and steady. Thus, our modern understanding about evolution - which is a combination of genetic science of the laws of descent with natural selection - is more complete than Darwin's theories proffered.
Darwin's influence on human thought in sekah. In terms of pure science, of course, he was committing a revolutionary all aspects of biology. Natural selection really have a very broad principles and fundamental, and various experiments have been done-its application in various fields such as anthropology, sociology, political science and economics.
Perhaps even more important influence on Darwin's thinking in terms of religion rather than on science or sociology. In Darwin's time and for years afterward, many Christian faithful adherents believe that accepting Darwin's theory mean lower degree of confidence in religion. Their concern is probably no basis even though obviously many other factors that cause so because of the erosion of religious belief. (Darwin himself became a secular).
Even on the basis of secular, Darwin's theory resulted in major changes to the way humans in terms of their thinking about the particulars of their world (the human race it seems) as a whole is no longer occupy a central position in the natural scheme of natural creatures as they had akukan. Now we must see ourselves as just one part of the many creatures and we acknowledge the possibility that once the date will be displaced. As a result of the investigation results of Darwin's view of Heraclitus who said, "Nothing is permanent except change" became more widely accepted. Successful theory of evolution as a general explanation of the origin of humans have more confidence in the ability to establish his knowledge to answer any questions the physical world (although not all human problems and human). The term Darwin, "The strong overcome the weak" and "struggle for life" had become a part of our vocabulary.
Indeed, Darwin's theory will be explai faored ned as well though such as Darwin had never lived in the world. Moreover, measured by what Wallace has been generated, it contains very truth, more than any particulars contained in this book list. However, the writings of Darwin that has revolutionized biology and antropolgi and he who has changed our view of the place of humanity in the world.

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