Biography of Cyrus the Great (± 590 BC-529 BC)

Cyrus (or Kurush Persinya name) was born around the year 590 BC in the province of Persis (now Fars), in southwestern Iran. This region was a province of the Kingdom of Medes. Cyrus comes from the descendants of local authorities which are subordinate to the King of Medes. The tradition that arose later makes interesting tale concerning these Cyrus himself, as if reminding people of the Greek myth of King Oedipus. According to this tale, Cyrus was the grandson of Astyages King of Medes. Before the birth of Cyrus, Astyages dream that his grandson will someday menghalaunya from the throne. The king issued orders that all newborn babies be killed out.

However, officials believed the murder was not the heart to commit murder is evil, but the continuation of the order was to the shepherd and his wife to carry it out. But they are also not the heart. Them instead of killing baby boy but maintain it as their own children. Finally, when the boy grew up, did he really topple the king from his throne.

Medes and Persian nation adjacent to each other, either due to the origin and language similarities. Because Cyrus still pass some laws of Medes and most of the administrative procedures of government, his victory over the Medes is just a mere change of dynasty and not a conquest by a foreign nation.

However, Cyrus immediately revealing his desire to defeat to the outside. His first target is the Lydian kingdom in Asia Minor, ruled by King Croesus, whose wealth was such a fairy tale. Iron Cyrus is nothing when compared to gold Croesus. By the year 546 BC Cyrus conquered the Lydian kingdom of Croesus and throw into jail.

Cyrus then turned his attention towards the east, and in a series of battles, he conquered all the eastern part of Iran and the inclusion into the territory of his kingdom. In the year 540 BC, Persian Empire stretched to the east as far as the Indus River and Jaxartes (now Syr Darya in Central Asia).

By protecting the rear. Cyrus can focus on the most valuable of all. Babylon the prosperous Empire jinawi loh, located in central Mesopotamia but can supervise all the provinces "fertile crescent" (Fertile Crescent) the Middle East. Unlike Cyrus, the ruler of Babylon Nabonidus was not popular among the people. When the army moved forward Cyrus, Babylon troops bow the knee Cyrus without a fight. Because the Babylon Empire also includes Syria and Palestine, two areas were incorporated into the dominions of Cyrus.

Cyrus spent several years to consolidate its control and re-organize such a huge empire that has been captured. Then he led the Army to conquer the northeast Massagetae, nomadic tribes that lived in northeast Central Asia Caspian. The Persians gained the victory in times of armed first. But in the second battle, a battle in 529 BC, they conquered and Cyrus - ruler of the empire the world has ever seen at that time - were killed.

Cyrus succeeded by his son Cambyses II. Massagate Cambyses defeated in the ensuing battle, found the bodies of his father and bury it back in Pasargadae, the capital of ancient Persia. Then Cambyses sent troops to the invasion of Egypt, and thus he unites all the old Middle East region in a single empire.

Cyrus definitely a leader with the military sphere of permissibility. But that's just one side of a man. More prominent, perhaps, is the policy of how to command. He was very tolerant of well-known religions of the local as well as their customs. And he always distanced himself from the attitude of cruel and vicious as usual the conquerors. The people of Babylon, for example, even more markedly longer Assyrians, had killed thousands of people and expel all the inhabitants, who fear going to rebel. For example, when Babylon conquered Judea in 586 BC, they bring the Judeans to Babylon. But fifty years later, after Cyrus conquered Babylon, he gave the Jews permission to return to his hometown. If not for Cyrus, it seems that the Jews would perish as an isolated group in the 5th century BC. Cyrus's decision in this case may have political motivations: however little doubt that he is a ruler who inhuman in his time. Even the Greeks, who for a long time considered the Persian Empire is the biggest threat to its independence, never ceased to regard Cyrus a ruler who truly amazing.

As soon as Cyrus has done its job well so that even after the demise of the Persian Empire was to continue expanding his territory. This lasted for about 200 years, until conquered by Alexander the Great. Almost throughout two centuries, the Persian-controlled areas to enjoy the peace and prosperity.

Conquest by Alexander at all does not bode termination of the Persian Empire. After Alexander's death, one of his generals, Seleucus I Nicator, overran Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran, so he founded the Seleucid Empire. However, foreign powers on Iran did not take long. In the mid-third century BC the revolt broke out against Seleucid rule, under the leadership of Arsaves I who consider themselves descendants of the Achaemenid (dynasty of Cyrus). An empire founded by Arsaces known by the name of the Parthian Empire of Iran and Mesopotamia finally mastered. The year 224 AD after ruling Arsacid dynasty replaced Persian, Sassanid, who also claimed descent from Archaeminid, and the empire lasted more than four centuries. Even Cyrus is now regarded in Iran as the founder of the Persian state.

Cyrus the Great's career is an important example of a turning point in history. First time growing culture in Sumer, around 3000 years BC. For more than twenty-five centuries the Sumerians and various Semitic peoples who succeeded him (such as the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian) became the center of civilization. Throughout that period, Mesopotamia is the country's richest and most culturally advanced in the world (with the exception of Egypt which is roughly located in tarap sejaiar). But Cyrus's career - which arguably was in the midst of recorded history - an end to that scene in world history. From ever since then, both Mesopotamia and Egypt was no longer the cultural center of the world, both culturally and politically.

Furthermore, the Semitic peoples - a large amount in the "fertile crescent" - can not get back their independence for centuries afterward. After the Persians (Indo-Europeans) came the Macedonian and Greek, followed by a long occupation by the Parthians, Romans, Sassanid rulers, all of which are IndoEropa. Until the conquest by the Muslims in the 7th century - nearly twelve centuries after Cyrus the Great - the "fertile crescent" was mastered by the Semitic peoples.

Map of the Kingdom of Cyrus the Great

Cyrus is important not just because he won many battles and conquered many areas. Greater significance is the fact that the empire that he built steadily changing the political structure of the old world.

Persian Empire, in addition to the breadth and length of stay, does not have a major influence in the history as seen in the Roman Empire. England, or China is longer. However, taking into account the importance of Cyrus' people should remember that he had completed something that probably would never have happened without him. In the year 620 BC (same generation before Cyrus was born) no one would suspect that within a century the whole old world will be under the authority of a tribe that was not known who originated from southwestern Iran. Even with hindsight, it appears that no one of the Persian Empire empires that have historical significance because of its social and economic circumstances will be able to be so big so fast or slow. So, Cyrus is one of those rare markedly alter the course of history.

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