Albert Bandura Biography



Albert Bandura


Albert Bandura was born in Mudane Canada, December 4, 1925. He is a psychologist. He received a bachelor's degree in psychology at the University of British of Columbia in 1949. Then he entered the University of Iowa, where he earned his Ph.D in 1952. Only after that he became very influential in the behaviorist tradition and learning theory.


In 1953, he began teaching at Stanford University. Here, he then worked with one of his protege, Richard Walters. The first book titled their collaboration Adolescent Aggression published in 1959. Bandura became president of the APA in 1973, and received APA Award for his services in the Distinguished Scientific Contributions in 1980.


Albert Bandura's theories are applicable in many fields of education, especially on social learning (social learning theory). Social learning theory was originally named as "Social Cognitive Theory" by Bandura himself (Moore, 2002). Social learning theory states that social factors, cognitive and behavior play an important role in learning (Santrock, 2001). Cognitive factors will affect the student insight about understanding, while social factors, including concerns about student behavior and imitation mother and father, will affect the student's behavior.

Social learning theory considers human beings as active, trying to make the choice and use of developmental processes to conclude the event and communicate with others. Human behavior is not determined by environmental influences and the history of a person or act passively to environmental influences. In many ways, humans are selective and not a passive entity, which may be influenced by their environment.
Bandura (1977) states that "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of Their Own action to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of ​​her new behaviors are performed, and on occasion later this coded information serves as a guide for action ".

Bandura's theory explains human behavior in the context of a continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences. Environmental conditions greatly affect individual patterns of this type of social learning. For example, a man of his life and grew up in the gambling environment, then he is likely to choose to gamble, gambling or otherwise assume bahawa it is not good.
Learning theory is also developed to explain how people learn in a state or the actual environment. Bandura (1977) hypothesized that the behavior (B = behavior), environment (E = environment) and internal events that affect the student's perception and action (P = perception) is a relationship of mutual influence or relating to (interlocking). by Albert Bandura again, the behavior is often evaluated, namely free of reciprocity that may alter one's personal impressions. Recognition of different social influence conception of individual self.

Social learning theory emphasizes that wards are faced with someone by chance; neighborhoods were often chosen and changed by the people through their own behavior. According to Bandura, as (Kardi, S., 1997: 14) that "most people learn through observation and selectively recall the behavior of others". The essence of social learning theory is modeling (modeling), and modeling is one of the most important step in integrated learning.
There are two types of learning through observation (observational learning).

1. First, learning can occur through the observation of the conditions experienced by other people or vicarious conditioning. For example, a student saw his friend praised or reprimanded by his teacher kerana his actions, he then mimics other acts whose purpose is to be complimented by the same teacher. This incident is an example of reinforcement through praise that happened to someone else or vicarious reinforcement.

2. Second, learning through observation mimics the behavior of a model even though the model did not get a strengthening or weakening of the observer at the time it was noticed that the model wanted to demonstrate something that is learned by observers and expect praise or reinforcement if thoroughly mastered what was learned. The model must be performed by someone not directly, but we can also use one as a player or artificial visualization model.

According to Bandura, one treatment is the result of interaction of the factors in (cognitive) and the environment. To explain this view, he has put forward the theory of imitation. Together with Walter (1963) he conducted research on children by watching adults hit, and knocked with the iron hammer pounding screaming 'sockeroo' in the film. After watching the film is directed towards children playing in the game room and a statue like that shown in the film. Once a child is to see the statue, they imitate the actions carried out by people they watch the film.
Social learning theory approach to processes of social and moral development is emphasized on the need for conditioning (habituation response) and imitation (imitation).

Social learning procedures:


Conditioning

Learning procedures in developing the social and moral behavior is essentially the same as the procedures learned in developing other behaviors, ie, by; Reward (rewards), Punishment (punishment). The idea: Once a study the differences between the behaviors that generate rewards (reward) with the behaviors that lead to punishment (punishment), so that he can decide for yourself which behavior will he do.



Imitation

Imitation (imitation). In this case, parents and teachers are expected to play an important role as a model / character is used as an example of social and moral behavior. Quality-ability learners in making observations about the social behavior of the model, among others, depending on the sharpness of his perception of rewards and punishments associated with right and wrong behavior that he copied from earlier models. In addition, the quality of imitation is also dependent on the perceptions of students "who" became a model. That is, the more skilled and dignified a model, the higher the quality of imitation social and moral behavior such learners. So in Social Learning, children learn as environmental samples. Interaction between children and the environment will lead to a new experience for children.

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