The Biography of Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 in Bonn, died March 26, 1827 in Vienna) was a German composer of classical music. His most famous is the fifth and ninth symphonies, piano songs as well as Für Elise. He is regarded as one of the greatest composers and an important figure in the transitional period between the Classical Period and Romantic Period. As a young man, he is a talented pianist, popular among the important people and rich in Vienna, Austria, where he lived. However, in 1801, he started to become deaf.

Increasingly severe deafness, and in 1817 he became completely deaf. Although he no longer could play in concert, he continues to create music, and at this time to create some of the greatest masterpieces. He lived the rest of his life in Vienna and never married.


Beethoven's grandfather, Louis Ludwig van Beethoven (1712-1773) served as a singer in the chapel of the palace Bonn. His father, Johann van Beethoven (1740-1792) worked as a tenor singer for Prince Bonn (from 1752). His mother was Mary Magdalene Keverich (1767-1787). Johann van Beethoven piano exercises to force their children for hours because his son wants to be 'boy wonder' like Mozart. Beethoven conducted his first concert on March 26, 1778 but not the equivalent of Mozart's genius at the same age.


Beethoven's first composition teacher was Christian Gottlob Neefe (1748-1798). Neefe who saw the talent to teach music Beethoven Beethoven played Bach's compositions and how to improvise, he also helped Beethoven publish his first work (1783). In a music magazine, Neefe wrote that Beethoven could be the 'Mozart' which both had he continued his career.

Beethoven at age 13

Prince of Bonn, Franz Xaver Stelker appointed as vice Neefe Beethoven in playing the organ and harpsichord. In 1783, Beethoven published three sonatas dedicated to Prince Franz, but because he has not received a salary from his job, asked Beethoven to be the official representative Neefe. This request was granted in 1784. In 1785, Beethoven composed three piano trios for the prince but the work was not published until Beethoven's death. At the same time, Beethoven studied music at the Franz Ries.

In 1787, Beethoven went to Vienna on the orders of Prince. There he met Mozart and playing piano in front of him. Mozart was very impressed with Beethoven and he said that Beethoven could be a great musician in the future. Beethoven's visit is only temporary because the money was gone, he called back to Bonn because his mother severely ill from tuberculosis, who then took his life on July 17, 1787. Beethoven burdened care of her siblings are still small. Because the father drunks and spend money for alcohol, Beethoven requested that his salary be given to him. Beethoven gets a steady income by giving piano lessons to the aristocracy.

Apprenticed to Haydn

In 1792, Joseph Haydn was living in Vienna for a while on his way to London. Prince Waldstein, one of a close friend of Beethoven's Archduke Franz persuaded Beethoven to finance the trip to Vienna to study composition at the Haydn.
Beethoven on Haydn composition lessons do not go well. Haydn was friendly and a good teacher but he did not pay much attention and did not correct its job thoroughly. Haydn Beethoven though he appreciates the ideas do not understand his music. Beethoven without Haydn's knowledge studied composition under the guidance of Johann Schenk. Prince Franz called Beethoven back to Bonn, but Beethoven chose to stay in Vienna and his career there until he died.

At the time of Haydn went to London in early 1794, Beethoven studied composition at the Johann Georg and Antonio Salieri Alberchtsberger. Beethoven began his career in Vienna as a pianist. On March 1795, bringing Beethoven Piano Concerto in Bb Major, Op. 19, he also paid a visit to Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin in 1796.

In Vienna

Early career

In his early days in Vienna, Beethoven still get a paycheck from Prince Franz, but that he also helped by some nobles who supported, among others, the Prince Carl von Lichnowsky. Beethoven dedicated to him one of the most famous piano sonata, Sonata in C Minor "Pathetique", Op. 13. The beginning of Vienna is a pretty productive time for Beethoven. Compositions that he composed, among others, symphony no. 1 and 2, five piano sonatas including the "Moonlight" sonata and the "Pastorale" sonata, violin sonata fourth and fifth (op. 23 and Op. 24), variations in Bei Mannern cello, welche Liebe fuhle's Mozart, Quintet Op. 18, septet in Eb Major, Op. 20, and Quintet, Op. 29. Beethoven was not only popular as a virtuoso pianist but also as a composer. His students are mostly from aristocratic families.

Began a period of deafness

In mid-1801, Beethoven began to realize that power is reduced due otoslerosis hearing. A letter found in a house near Vienna Beethoven in Heiligenstadt, known as 'Heritage Heiligenstadt' Beethoven contain how upset they experienced because of illness. Grief is reasonable because at the time Beethoven was the peak of his career. Because of this disease, Beethoven became depressed and she became increasingly insecure in social interaction. One other reason for his depression Beethoven is that he did not manage to get 'mates'. Many noble women who are loved but generally unrequited love.

Escape from the gloom

In 1802, Beethoven out of kemuramannya. He continued to compose. In 1803 he staged Piano Concerto in Eb Major, Op. 37 and appears as soloist. In the same year Beethoven Violin Sonata Op plays. 47 owned by virtuoso violinist George Polgreen Bridgetower (1799-1860) and the present work was to Rudolph Kreutzer.

Symphony No.. 3 Eroica

In 1805 composed the Symphony No.. 3 in Eb 'Eroica', Op. 55. According to his friend, Ferdinand Ries, Beethoven tore the original title of the symphony was dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte. Beethoven was furious after learning that Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor of France. Beethoven changed the original title of this symphony, 'Bonaparte' and write 'Sinfonia Eroica ... composta per festiggiare il sovvenire de un grand' Uomo 'which means' eroika Symphony, written to commemorate the great man'.

Writing 'Sinfonia Grande del Sigre intitolata Bonaparte' contained in the manuscript copies of the first and second symphonies of Beethoven were forcibly removed and the hole scars. However, Beethoven's anger only briefly because of a few months after the coronation of Napoleon, Beethoven sent a letter to Breitkopf & Härtel 'symphony was actually the title of Bonaparte' and in 1810 he wrote that 'mass may be also dedicated to Napoleon'. Symphony was performed at the residence of Prince Lobkowitz at the end of 1804.

The new composition styles

With the Eroica symphony, Beethoven wanted to show the attitude of the depression and fought not to be outdone by the disease. According to Carl Czerny, his pupil, Beethoven tried to force the new composition while working on the three piano sonatas, Op. 31. The results are shown in three of his sonatas, Piano Sonata in C Major 'Waldstein', Op. 53, Piano Sonata in F Major, Op. 54, and the Piano Sonata in F Minor 'Appasionata', Op. 57. But Beethoven never been harping on the Czerny that he was a bit annoyed because the public just like the 'Moonlight' sonata when he could create his songs better than the song.

The fifth symphony of Beethoven symphonies are considered as the start of new styles. At the symphony, there is such a tone that mars the tempo. This never happened in the days before Beethoven.

Performing opera Fidelio

In 1805, a theatrical staging of Beethoven's opera, Fidelio, Leonore who has the original title. However, this play does not work because in a few days earlier, Vienna was conquered by Napoleon. Fidelio by Beethoven revised twice, in 1806 and 1814. Beethoven also created four overture to Fidelio, entitled Leonore Overture no. 1, 2, and 3. Overture to-4 is named Fidelio Overture.

Surely Beethoven not have a fixed income. He has received honors after completing music or any of his work orders are issued. On December 22, 1808, Beethoven held a concert to raise money in the theaters of Vienna. The concert featured many of the latest works of Beethoven, including Symphony No.. 5 in C Minor, Op. And Symphony No. 67. 6 in F Major, Op. 68, piano concerto no. 4, and Fantasien, Op. 80. This concert is not yet known in terms of financial success.

Want to move from Vienna

In 1808, Beethoven really want to move and work on Jerome Napoleon at Cassel with a salary of 2400 guilders / year. However, his friends from among the nobles, among others, Prince Rudolph, Prince Lobkowitz and Kinsky asked Beethoven to remain with the assurance they will pay the salaries of Beethoven for 4000 guilders per year. Also Beethoven Piano Concerto No. composition. 5 in B Flat Major 'Emperor', Op. 73, dedicated to Prince Rudolph and the String Quartet in E Flat Major, Op. 74. In the same year, Napoleon reoccupied the city of Vienna so many nobles who had fled from there. Beethoven Piano Sonata in Eb create 'Les adieux', Op. 81A.

Financial crisis

In 1811, Beethoven was more depressed at this difficult time. Mainly because he did not managed to get a mate. One of the women she was Countess Therese Malfatti nut, but he refused. Beethoven also suffered a financial crisis due to a decline in paper currency in Vienna. Money to one-fifth the price of new currency. Beethoven also had a dispute with his brother, Johann. However, Beethoven's Symphony No start working. 7 in A Major, Op. 92 and completed in early 1812.

In the spring of 1812, Beethoven been to spas in Teplitz and met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, one of the men he most admired since childhood. On December 8, 1813, created a symphony of Beethoven's 'war' called Wellington's Victory. Some famous composers such as Hummel, Mayseder, Moscheles, and Salieri took part in the staging of this symphony.

Great concert

On 29 November 1814, Beethoven's Fidelio staged a huge success. Most members of the Congress of Vienna take this opera. Outside of that success, Beethoven's hearing more and worse. The situation is getting worse because of Beethoven's parents claim custody of his nephew, Karl. Beethoven considered the mother could not take care of his nephew Karl. Beethoven won the case but he was not a good parent for Karl. The boy eventually became depressed and started hanging out with gang naughty children. The peak was in 1816, when Karl attempted suicide. This makes Beethoven's pretty depressed. After recovering, Karl returned to his mother and went to military school.
In 1817, Beethoven came out of depression and kemurungannya. This was shown by the time he made the Piano Sonata in A Major, Op. 101. In 1817, Beethoven composed some of the compositions to a British writer, Richard Ford. However, these works have never known until discovered in England in 1999. In addition, Beethoven also began planning for his piano sonata composed of the most revolutionary, Piano Sonata in Bb 'Hammerklavier', Op. 106.

Missa Solemnis

In 1822, Beethoven composed the Missa Solemnis for the coronation of Prince Rudolph as bishop of Olomouc in 1819. Beethoven also began the design of the 9th symphony of his.

On May 7, 1824, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis with staging the 9th Symphony in Vienna. The concert was a huge success. But there was news saying that Beethoven was not aware that the concert has finished and reading scores. Caroline Unger, one of the alto soloist in the symphony of Beethoven must draw clothes so that he would turn around and look into the audience with a rousing applause.
In 1826, Beethoven had a high fever which was caused by kidney disease. The disease can not be saved and he died on March 26, 1827.

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