Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Biography-President of Liberia to-24.

Ellen Johson Sirleaf

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (born October 29, 1938, age 73 years) was the 24th President of Liberia. He served as Minister of Finance under President William Tolbert from 1979 until a coup in 1980. Later, he left Liberia and held senior positions at various financial institutions. He won second place in the 1997 presidential election. Later, he was elected president in the 2005 presidential election and became president on January 16, 2006. Sirleaf is the first woman to currently serving heads of state / president in Africa.

Sirleaf was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 along with Leymah Gbowee of Liberia and Tawakel Karman from Yemen. The women recognized "for their non-violent struggle for women's safety and rights of women to participate fully in peace building bekerja.Namun, this has generated controversy in Liberia as it has been interpreted by political critics that the gifts given Sirleaf has an "unfair advantage" given that the bestowal of the President of Liberia approaching elections scheduled for October 11, 2011.

Family Background

Although not a descendant of Americo-Liberia, Sirleaf is considered culturally Americo-Liberian by some observers or assumed to Americo-Liberian. However, Sirleaf does not identify as ethnic itu.Latar rear is 1/2 Gola from her father's side, and 1/4 German (grandfather) and 1/4 Kru (grandmother) from her mother's side.

His father, Jahmale Carney Johnson was born into a poor rural area. He was the son of a Gola chief named Jahmale small and one of his wife, Jenneh, in Julijuah, Bomi County. Her father was sent to Monrovia, where Johnson's last name changed since his father's loyalty to President Hilary RW Johnson, Liberia's first Liberian-born president. He grew up in Monrovia, where he was raised by an Americo-Liberian family with the name McGritty.Ayah Sirleaf became Liberia's first indigenous ethnic group to sit in the national legislature.

Her mother was also born into poverty in Greenville, Liberia.Neneknya juah Sarwee sent mother to Monrovia when Sirleaf Sirleaf the German grandfather had to leave the country after Liberia declared war on Germany during World War I. A member of the family of prominent Americo-Liberian, Cecilia Dunbar, adopted and raised Sirleaf mother.

Early life and career

Sirleaf was born in Monrovia, and studied economics and accounts 1948-1955 at the College of West Africa in Monrovia. She married James Sirleaf when she was 17 years old, and then went with him to the United States in 1961 to continue his studies and earned an accounting degree at Madison Business College, in Madison, Wisconsin, and a degree in economics from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Sirleaf then studied economics and public policy at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government 1969-1971, get [Guru [Public Administration]].

He then returned to her native Liberia to work under William Tolbert government.
Sirleaf served as Assistant Minister of Finance 1972-1973 under Tolbert's administration. He resigned after entering into a disagreement about spending. Later he was Minister of Finance from 1979 until April 1980. Sergeant Samuel Doe, a member of the indigenous Krahn ethnic group, seized power in a military coup on 12 April 1980; Tolbert was killed and all but four members of his cabinet were executed by firing squad. Forgiveness of the People's Assembly to take over the country and led the purge against the former government. Sirleaf was originally accepted the post in the new administration as President of the Liberia Bank for Development and Investment, though he fled the country in November 1980 after publicly criticizing the Doe and the People's Redemption Council to state management.

Sirleaf was initially moved to Washington DC to work for the World Bank before moving to Nairobi in 1981 to serve as Vice President of the African Regional Office of Citibank. He resigned from Citibank in 1985 after his involvement in the 1985 elections in Liberia and worked for the Equator Bank, a subsidiary of HSBC. In 1992, Sirleaf was appointed as Assistant Administrator, the Director, Program Development of the United Nations Regional Bureau for Africa, from which he resigned in 1997 to run for president in Liberia. During his time at the UN, he was one of seven international dignitaries who was appointed in 1999 by the Organization of African Unity to investigate the Rwanda genocide, one of five chairs the Inter-Congolese Dialogue and one of two international experts selected by UNIFEM to investigate and report on the effects of conflict on women and the role of women in peace building. He is Chairman of the beginning of the Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA) and visiting Professor at the Ghana Institute of Management Governance and Public Administration (GIMPA).

Political career

General Election 1985
While working at Citibank, Sirleaf returned to Liberia in 1985 to run for Vice President of the Liberia Action Party in the 1985 presidential election. However, Sirleaf was placed under house arrest in August of that year and soon after sentenced to ten years in prison for sedition as a consequence of a speech in which he insulted members of the Doe regime. After an international call for his release, Doe pardoned and released in September. Because of government pressure, he was removed from the presidential ticket and instead ran for the Senate from Montserrado County constituency.

Although the general election, which saw Doe and the National Democratic Party won the presidency and a large majority in both houses, was widely condemned as not free and fair, Sirleaf was declared the winner of his Senate race. Sirleaf refused to accept the seat as a protest against election fraud. After the attempted coup against President Doe by Thomas Quiwonkpa on November 12, Sirleaf was arrested and jailed again on 13 November by Doe forces. Although it continues to refuse to accept the seat in the Senate, he was released in July 1986 and secretly fled to the United States later that year.

1997 Presidential Campaign

At the outbreak of the First Liberian Civil War in 1989, initially supported Sirleaf Charles Taylor's rebellion against Doe, helping to raise funds for the fight. However, he then went on to fight him. In 1996, the presence of ECOWAS peacekeepers authorized for the cessation of hostilities, so that the 1997 general election, which Sirleaf returned to her native Liberia for the contest. As a presidential candidate for the Unity Party, she placed second in a controversial election, losing by 10% of the vote to 75% of Charles Taylor. Sirleaf left the country soon after and again went into exile in Abidjan.

Presidential Campaign 2005
After the end of the Second Liberian Civil War and the establishment of a transitional government, Sirleaf was proposed as a possible candidate to head the government. Finally, Gyude Bryant, a politically neutral, was elected chairman, while Sirleaf served as head of the Government Reform Commission.

Sirleaf once again standing for president as candidate of the Unity Party in 2005 elections. He placed second in the first round of voting in the back of a football player George Weah. In the subsequent run-off election, Sirleaf won 59% of the vote compared to 40% for Weah, Weah denied although the results. Announcement of a new leader was postponed until further investigations carried out. On 23 November 2005, Sirleaf was declared the winner and confirmed the election of Liberia as the country's next president. Inauguration which took place on January 16, 2006 was attended by foreign dignitaries, including U.S. Secretary of State / Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and first lady Laura Bush the United States.

Presidential Campaign 2011

In January 2010, Sirleaf announced that she will run for a second term in presidential elections in 2011 when speaking to a joint session of the Legislature. The opposition leader noted that in doing so, he had broken a promise made during his campaign in 2005 to only serve one term if terpilih.Sirleaf was renominated as the Unity Party presidential candidate in the party's national convention on October 31, 2010. On the same day, Vice President Joseph Boakai nominated by the Sirleaf and confirmed by the delegates as a couple Sirleaf.

Domestic Policy

seriously damage the structure. An independent panel formed to investigate the incident ruled out arson, fire, connect to electrical damage.  called the Sirleaf government funds to repair homes of low priority in the face of more pressing needs, with the transfer Sirleaf to the State Department office buildings nearby and choose to stay at his home in Monrovia.
On July 26, 2007, Sirleaf celebrated Liberia's 160th Independence Day with the theme "Liberia at 160: Reklasi Future." He took a step unprecedented and symbolic by asking 25-year Liberian activist Kimmie Sunday to serve as National Orator for the celebrations, where Sunday urged the government to prioritize education and health care. A few days later, President Sirleaf issued Executive Order making education free and compulsory for all primary school age children.
In October 2010, Sirleaf signed the bill into the Freedom of Information Freedom of Information Act, the first legislation of its kind in West Africa.

In recognition of this, he became the first sitting head of state to receive the award from the Friends of the Media in Africa Editor of the African Union.
On 1 April 2011, Sirleaf told reporters that he plans to fill with the opposition candidate sedition  to organize a rally to protest corruption in government. Press secretary later clarified that statement was a 'Day | April Fools' Day April Fool's joke.


From the beginning of his presidency, Sirleaf promised to make the reduction of national debt, which stood at about U.S. $ 4.9 billion in 2006, the top priority for his administration. Of the United States became the first country to provide debt relief to Liberia, waiving the full $ 391 million debt to Liberia in early 2007. In September of that year, the G-8, led by Germany, Chancellor Angela Merkel to provide $ 324.5 million to settle 60% of Liberia's debt to the International Monetary Fund credits their decision with macroeconomic policy pursued by the Sirleaf administration.

On April 2009, the government managed to write off an additional $ 1.2 billion in commercial foreign debt in a deal which saw the government buy back debt at a discount rate 97% through financing provided by the International Development Association, Germany, Norway, the United States and Britain. Rate discount is the largest ever for a developing country.

Countries that are considered eligible to participate in Weight Indebted Poor Countries initiative in 2008. In June 2010, the country reaches the completion point of HIPC initiative, qualifying for the relief of the entire external debt. [24] That same month, the World Bank and IMF Agreed to fund $ 1.5 billion in writing off Liberia's multilateral debt.Pada the 16th of September , Paris Club agrees to cancel $ 1260000000, with independent bilateral creditors to cancel an additional $ 107 million, essentially writing the remaining external debt of Liberia. [26] Sirleaf vowed to prevent unsustainable borrowing in the future with an annual loan limit of 3% of GDP and limit the expenditure of all funds loans for one-time infrastructure projects.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

In 2006, Sirleaf established Truth and Reconciliation Commission with a mandate to "promote national peace, security, unity and reconciliation" by investigating more than 20 years of civil conflict in the country.
In their final report, issued in June 2009, KKR included Sirleaf in the list of 50 names of people who must be "specifically forbidden to hold public office; elected or appointed for a period of thirty (30) years" to "warring factions associated with the former. " The proposed ban comes from the financial support of former President Taylor in the early months of the First Liberian Civil War.
On July 26, 2009, Sirleaf apologized to Liberia in support of Charles Taylor, adding that "when the true nature of Mr. Taylor's intentions are known, no critics more eager or strong opponent for him in the democratic process" than she is. On August 28, the Legislature announced they had to "consult our constituents for about a year" before deciding whether or not to implement the recommendations of the Commission.

During the appearance at the Council on Foreign Relations in 2010, Sirleaf argues that the TRC recommended the implementation of the ban would not violate the constitutional right to due process. In October 2010, the Chairman of Sirleaf's Unity Party, Varney Sherman, argued that the implementation of the recommendations would be unconstitutional, because Article 21 (a) of the Constitution melarangex post factohukum, and Sirleaf has broken the law by not financially supporting Taylor that imposed the ban from public office as a penalty .
In January 2011, the Supreme Court ruled in Williams'ay Tah, the case brought by another person recommended to be banned from public office in the TRC report, the TRC's recommendations violation of constitutional rights of individuals listed 'for procedural due process, and that would not constitutional for the government to implement the proposed ban.

Foreign Policy

After his election to the office, Sirleaf did his first trip overseas as president to neighboring Ivory Coast, meeting with Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo in an effort to improve relations between the two countries following the Côte d'Ivoire support the Movement for Democracy in Liberia during the Liberian Civil War Kedua.Selama Ivorian Crisis 2010-2011, Sirleaf became chairman of Mano River Union, ECOWAS supported from Gbago opponent, Alassane Ouattara as the winner of the disputed presidential election, but rejected calls for a military solution to the crisis.

Sirleaf has forged close ties with the United States, a traditional ally of Liberia. Following the establishment of AFRICOM by the U.S. Military, Sirleaf offered to allow the U.S. to a new command headquarters in Liberia, the only African leader to do so.  The order was eventually headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. On March 15, 2006, President Sirleaf addressed a joint meeting of the American Congress, asking for Americans to help the country "become a brilliant beacon, an example to Africa and the world of what love can achieve freedom.

Sirleaf has also strengthened relations with the People's Republic of China, reaffirmed the commitment of Liberia to the One-China policy. In return, China has contributed to the reconstruction of Liberia, to build a transmitter Liberia Broadcasting System extends nationwide and build a new campus for the University of Liberia.
Sirleaf is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of women's current president and former prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest level women leaders globally for collective action on issues vital to women and equitable development.

During the Civil War of Libya in 2011, Sirleaf voice of the international community to support the Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi to stop the use of violence and repression of political tactics. He also criticized international military intervention in Libya, said that the violence "does not assist in any way it comes. Government later broke off diplomatic relations with Libya, stating that" The government took the decision after a careful review of the situation in Libya and Colonel Gaddafi determines that the Government has lost its legitimacy to rule Libya.

Administration and Cabinet

Opposition politician who joined the government originally included Jeremiah Sulunteh Transport Minister, Education Minister Joseph Korto, and Ambassador to the United Nations Nathaniel Barnes. Sirleaf also appointed several women's high-level posts in his administration, the first female minister to lead the Ministry of Finance, Trade Law, and Industry, Gender and Development, and Youth and Sports. Sirleaf said that while he plans to appoint the cabinet are women, he has been able to find qualified women candidates for each position.

After his inauguration, Sirleaf promised that he would implement a "zero tolerance" policy on corruption in government. Nevertheless, critics argue that corruption is still rampant in Sirleaf's government; Information Minister Lawrence Bropleh dismissed in 2008 on charges that he stole more than $ 200,000 in state funds, while Interior Minister Ambullai Johnson Sirleaf's brother, was fired in 2010 after loss of funding for the construction of the district. Sirleaf has himself admitted that corruption in the government remains, noting that its zero tolerance policy is hampered by the need to pass major economic reforms through the Legislature, the objectives to be significantly inhibited by anti-corruption laws and prosecution.  However, Sirleaf has rejected claims That she has failed to fight corruption, pointing to the establishment of the Liberian Anti-Corruption Commission and the restructuring of the General Auditing Commission.

Sirleaf entire cabinet dismissed from office on November 3, 2010, promising to get together again soon mungkin.Dia cabinet believes that the move was taken to give his administration a "clean" in preparation for the final year of his term, although critics argue that the move was aimed at to strengthen his chances in the election by dealing with corruption in the administration.] By early December 2010, Sirleaf had reconstituted her entire cabinet, Replacing seven of her nineteen Ministers.

Judicial appointments

After the inauguration of Sirleaf, the entire Supreme Court bench, which has been selected as part of the transitional government in 2003, retreated, leaving Sirleaf to fill all five seats on the Court. Sirleaf was nominated Johnnie Lewis, a Yale Law School graduate and former Circuit Court judge, for the office of the Chief Justice.] Lewis, and three nominations Sirleaf Association for Justice, J. Emmanuel Wureh, Korkpor Francis and Gladys Johnson, confirmed by the Senate on March 2, 2006. Nomination of Kabineh Ja'neh Sirleaf, a former leader of LURD rebel movement, such as the Association of Justice received criticism from the opposition Congress for Democratic Change due to concerns over 'Ja neh human rights record during the civil war, and Ja'neh not confirmed until May 9.

After the death of Justice Wureh in July 2006, Sirleaf was nominated Christiana Tah, vice minister at the Ministry of Justice, to fill the place duduknya.Namun, the Senate then rejected the nomination Tah, Sirleaf leading to nominate its Minister of Youth and Sports, Jamesetta Wolokollie Howard, who confirmed . Attorney Johnson retired from the Court on March 26, 2011 after reaching retirement age mandated by the constitution of seventy. Sirleaf was nominated Phillip AZ Banks, former Minister of Justice and he was Chairman of the Law Reform Commission, to replace Johnson in August 2011.Bank confirmed by the Senate on August 20, 2011.

International overview

Forbes magazine called Sirleaf as a woman ruler of the world to-51 in 2006. In 2010, Newsweek listed as one of the ten best in the world's leaders, while Time positioning it among the top ten leaders of the women. In the same time, The Economist called it "the best president the country has ever had.

Personal Life

In 1956, married James Sirleaf Sirleaf, who he later bercerai.Templat: When Sirleaf is the mother of four sons and have eight grandchildren. Magnitude nephew, Emmanuel Sumana Elsar Sr. was political adviser during the 2005 presidential election in the face of George Weah.


Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute Freedom of Speech Award in 1988
International Leadership Award from the Ralph Bunche
Grand Commander of the African Redemption of Liberia Stars
Commandeur de l'ordre du Togo
Common Ground Award from Search for Common Ground in 2006
Laureate of the Africa Prize for Leadership for the Sustainable End of Hunger, The Hunger Project in 2006
Distinguished Fellow, Claus M. Halle Institute for Global Learning, Emory University in 2006
Honorary doctorates in law from Marquette University in 2006
David Rockefeller Bridging Leadership Award from Synergos in 2006
Presidential Medal of Freedom on 5 November 2007
Honorary doctorates in law from Indiana University in 2008
Honorary doctorates in law from Brown University in 2008
EITI Award for "the rapid progress the country has made towards implementation of the EITI" in 2009
Honorary doctorates in the fields of literature, literature from the University of Tampa in 2009
Honorary doctorates in law from Yale University in 2010
Honorary doctorates in law from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in 2010
Friend of the Media in Africa Award of The African Editor's Union in 2010
Honorary doctorates in law from Harvard University in 2011
African Gender Award in 2011
Nobel Peace Prize 2011

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