Giorgio Napolitano, President of the Republic of Italy to-11

Giorgio Napolitano (born in Napoli, Italy, June 29, 1925, age 86 years), is a lifelong politician and senator of Italy and President of the Republic of Italy today. He was chosen by election held on May 10, 2006 and began his post since inaugurated on May 15.


In 1942, at the age of 17 years, Napolitano masik to the University of Napoli Federico II. He became a member of the GUF (Gruppo Universitario Fascista, Fascist University Groups) local Fascist student organization. There he found a number of other students who are both adopted a negative view of the regime. As written, this group, "in fact is a true nursery field of anti-fascist intellectual energies, disguised and somewhat tolerable". He later founded a communist anti-fascist group, who, after the ceasefire, took part in some of the resistance movement against the Nazi and pro-Mussolini forces.

In 1945, after the end of World War II, Napolitano joined the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI). In 1947 he graduated from law school. He was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1953. After that, he was elected to the National Committee of the party, and assume responsibility for the Commission to Southern Italy in 1956.

In that year, then there was a Hungarian Revolution was suppressed by the Soviet Union. Assume leadership of the Italian Communist Party's counter-revolutionary rebellion (l'Unita, the official PCI newspaper, describing them as "bastards" and "provocation agents") and Napolitano followed the party line. Years later, he repeatedly claimed to have left his position, and it was partly due to concerns about the unity of the party and especially to "the concept that the role of PCI and action are inseparable from the 'field socialist', led by the Soviet Union, which on its own field should be left by the front tesentuh 'imperialists' ". In his political autobiography Dal PCI al Socialismo Europeo ("From the Italian Communist Party towards European Socialism"), Napolitano considering the justification for Soviet intervention as "torture otokritis who grieves."
Decision in 1956 to create a split in the PCI. CGIL, Italy's trade unions, most importantly, who was didominiasi by the communists, rejected the view that the leadership of and claims Hungarian revolution can be justified. Many people in the union came to argue that "Italian road to socialism" must be based on democracy. View of their visibility in the party-backed by Giorgio Amendola.

Close to the wing of the party led by Amendola, Napolitano quietly become one of the most influential leaders of the PCI. Because it is often seen together, Giorgio Amendola and Giorgio Napolitano Giorgio often jokingly called 'o chiatto and Giorgio' o sicco (Napoli each language for "Giorgio the fat" and "Giorgio skinny"), by their friends . Napolitano became secretary of the federation in Naples and Caserta, and later, between 1966 and 1969, he became coordinator of the office of secretary and office politics. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was initially responsible for the field of culture and later for economic policy and international relations of the party.

Political ideas rather moderate in the context of PCI: instead he became the leader of the so-called "wing melioris" (corrente migliorista) of the party, whose members include Gerardo Chiaromonte and Emanuele Macaluso. Migliorista term (from Migliore, Italian for "better") was created with the intention of slightly mocking.

In the mid-1970s, Napolitano was invited by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to give a lecture, but the U.S. ambassador to Italy, John A. Volpe, refused to give him a visa on the grounds he was a member of the Communist Party. Between 1977 and 1981, Napolitano made a number of secret meetings with U.S. Ambassador Richard Gardner, when PCI was trying to relate to the U.S. government, in order to sever its links with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the beginning erokomunisme, seeks to develop theories and practices that are more suitable for countries democracy in Western Europe. In 2006, when Napolitano was elected President of the Republic of Italy, Gardner told the AP TV News Napolitano that he considered "a true statesman," "people who truly believe in democracy" and "a friend of the United States [which] will carry out their duties fairly and impartially ".

Thanks to this role and partly because of good service Giulio Andreotti, in the 1980's Napolitano to visit the United States and delivered his lecture in Aspen, Colorado and at Harvard University. Since then he has visited and lectured several times in the U.S..

After the Italian Communist Party was disbanded in 1991, Napolitano joined the Democratic Left Party, later the Democratic Left (Democratici in Sinistra, or DS). He successively served as President of the House of Representatives (1992-1994) and between 1996 and 1998 he served as the first former Communist who became Minister of Home Affairs, a role that is usually held by the Christian Democrats. He also menajbat as a Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2004. On October 2005, he was appointed senator for life, and therefore the last person to be appointed by the President of Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi.

Election as president (2006)

In 2006, his name is often mentioned for the post of President of the Republic of Italy. Napolitano is the second proposal of the center-left majority coalition, the Union, instead of Massimo D'Alema, after a potential shared voice to D'Alema rejected by the leaders of the center-right coalition House of Independence. Although Napolitano at first appear as a candidate may be approved by the House of Independence, this proposal was rejected as a proposal to D'Alema.

Center-left majority coalition, on May 7, 2006, formally endorsed Giorgio Napolitano as kandidtat them in a special election that began on 8 May. The Vatican supports the President through its official newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, just after the Union announced their name as a candidate. Similarly, Marco Follini, the former secretary of the UDC, which tend to be right Christian party, a member of Freedom House.

Napolitano was elected on May 10, 2006 at the fourth-round selection of the first round only requires an absolute majority, unlike the three previous rounds of the required two-thirds vote with 543 votes (of a possible 1009). He was the first former communist who became President of Italy. As a candidate for President of the Republic of Italy he was described by members of the Union and Freedom House (an empty vote) after his election. But some right-wing Italian newspaper, Il Giornale eg, expressing concern about his past as a communist.

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