Napoleon Bonaparte Biography

Napoleon Bonaparte

Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (born on the island of Corsica, August 15, 1769 - died May 5, 1821 at age 51 years) came from a local noble family by the name Napoleone Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione). He later adapted the name of Napoléon Bonaparte more smelly French.

The origins and educational

Napoleon Bonaparte was the second of seven children. He was born in Casa Bounaparte, in the town of Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15, 1769, one year after the island was handed over to the French Republic of Genova. He was born with the name Napoleone in Bounaparte, but he changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte more smelly French.

Bounaparte family is noble families originating from Italy, who moved to Corsica in the 16th century / [3] His father, Carlo Nobile Bounaparte, a lawyer, was once the Corsican representative when Louis XVI came to power in 1777. His mother was named Maria Letizia Ramolino. He has a brother, Joseph, and five sisters, namely Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jérôme. Napoleon was baptized as a Catholic a few days before their second birthday, the exact date is July 21, 1771 in Ajaccio Katerdal.

Nobility, wealth, and extensive family connections gave Napoleon ample opportunity to learn up to a level that tinggi.Pada month of January 1779, Napoleon registered at a religious school in Autun, France, to learn French, and in May she enrolled in a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. At school, he speaks with a thick Corsican accent, so he often derided his friends; forced to belajar.Napoleon good at math, and quite understand the lessons of history and geography.

After completing his education at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was enrolled at the elite school École Militaire in Paris. There he trained as an artillery officer. When the school there, his father died. He was forced to finish the school which normally takes two years to one year. He was tested by a famous scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace, who later was appointed by Napoleon to be a member of the senate.

Military career

He became a student at the Military Academy of Brienne in 1779 at age 10, his intelligence makes Napoleon graduated college at age 15. His military career after he managed to climb rapidly quell the unrest that led the royalist supporters in a very surprising: fire the cannon in the city of Paris from the top of the tower. The incident occurred in 1795 when Napoleon was 26 years old. Variety that won them the war against Austria and Prussia.


At its heyday, Napoleon Bonaparte occupied almost all the plains of Europe either by diplomacy or war. Among them are the Netherlands with the appointment of his brother Louis Napoleon, the Spanish with the appointment of Joseph Napoleon, Sweden with the appointment of General Bernadotte as the king who then committed treason, most of the Italian territory which was annexed from Austria and Poland with the appointment of Joseph Poniatowski Polish state as a trustee.


Married a widow named Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoleon married life filled with mistrust and infidelity among Napoleon's infidelity with a Polish girl Maria Walewska until eventually became his faithful wife Joséphine. Because of advanced age, Joséphine did not give offspring to Napoleon and then divorced. Then married again with the Emperor of Austria Princess Marie Louise daughter of Francois I, which binds to the Emperor of Austria and the French alliance that made Emperor of Austria on the advice of the prime minister Matternich to save his country. The marriage ended in defeat with the fall of Napoleon who first attacked the city of Paris from Russia, Austria and Prussia, and the removal of Napoleon to the island of Elba. Marie Louise alone brought home by his father to Vienna.



In military organizations, Napoleon introduced the term corps, which consists of a collection of divisions. The formation of this corps is also supported by the magnitude of the resulting registration number of army troops to swell and thus a larger army units of the division.
Napoleon is also known for its use of massive artillery to destroy enemy forces, infantry troops rather than using it directly. In the selection of artillery, Napoleon chose to have a high mobility artillery in order to support the tactical maneuvers that are often used in combat. One of the frequently used artillery cannon Year XI system which is actually more of an innovation of Gribeauval cannon system.


But not all successful battle won. Failure to invade the land of Egypt is consequently faced with the power of England, Mamluk and Ottoman. Although the desert land, Napoleon successfully defeated the combined Ottoman and Mamluk army at the Battle of the Pyramids, but a few days later the French fleet was defeated by the British fleet under the command of Admiral Horatio Nelson at Aboukir Bay. Horatio Nelson's fleet for the second time defeated the French fleet. This time the Trafalgar naval battle in the Franco-Spanish fleet led by Admiral Villeneuve with Britain fleet led by Admiral Nelson even though Nelson was killed in this battle (French sniper shot).

Failure to invade Russia because of the tenacity and ingenuity of General Mikhail Kutuzov strategy and Tsar Alexander I in the face of French forces by exploiting a known Russian winter and the deadly betrayal King of Sweden, General Bernadotte. Russia's strategy in this case is to burn the city of Moscow when Napoleon conquered the city after a grueling battle at Borodino and expects the new logistics resources. Repeated defeat in Russia by Adolf Hitler of Germany in World War II.

Defeat that ended his career as Emperor of the French after escaping from Elba Island, and ruling again in France during the 100 days is the defeat at Waterloo when dealing with British forces led by the Duke of Wellington, the Prince of Orange Netherlands and Prussia, led by General Blücher and weapons The new findings from the UK General Shrapnel, which resulted in him banished to the island of Saint Helena until his death.

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