Karl Landsteiner-Inventor of Blood Type

Karl Landsteiner
Karl Landsteiner (born June 14, 1868 - died June 26, 1943 at age 75 years) was a Jewish Austrian scientists. He is the man who discovered that human blood is divided into 4 groups that are now known as blood group O, A, B, and AB. With these findings, one can mentransfusi blood safely and not recklessly to menstrafusi blood. Classification of blood groups of the identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood and has been identified, by Alexander S. Wiener, Rhesus factor, in 1937, allowing doctors to blood transfusion without endangering the lives of patients. With Erwin Popper, he discovered the polio virus, in 1909. In 1930 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was awarded the Lasker Award posthumously in 1946. Father of Leopold Landsteiner (1818-1875), a renowned Viennese journalist, dies at age 56, when Karl was six. This led to the close relationship between Landsteiner and his mother Fanny (née Hess), (1837-1908).

Karl and his mother converted to Catholicism when he was twenty-one. He continues to mask the death of her entire life in his bedroom. After graduating with a Matura examination of a Viennese high school she studied medicine at the University of Vienna and wrote his doctoral thesis in 1891. While still a student he published an essay on the influence of diet on blood composition. From 1891-1893 Landsteiner studied chemistry in Würzburg under Hermann Emil Fischer, Munich and Zürich under Eugen Hamburger under Arthur Rudolf cart. A number of publications of that period, some of them in collaboration with professors, shows that he did not confine himself to hear the lectures. After returning to Vienna, he became assistant to Max von Gruber in the Hygiene Institute. In his research, he concentrates on the nature of antibodies and immune mechanisms.

From November 1897-1908 Landsteiner was an assistant in anatomy-pathological institute of the University of Vienna under Anton Weichsem, where he published 75 papers, dealing with issues in serology, bacteriology, virology and pathologic anatomy. Besides, he did some 3600 autopsies in ten years. Weicaum Landsteiner was a teacher for a postdoctoral lecture qualification in 1903. From 1908-1920 was prosector at Wilhelminenspital Landsteiner in Vienna and in 1911 he was sworn in as a professor of pathological anatomy. During that time he found - in collaboration with Erwin Popper -. Isolated infectious character of Poliomyelitis and polio virus. In recognition of innovative discoveries, which proved to be the basis for the fight against polio, he was posthumously inducted into the Polio Hall of Fame in Warm Springs, Georgia is dedicated in January 1958. In 1900 Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood from two people under the agglutinates contact, and in 1901 he found that this effect is due to contact of blood with the blood serum.

As a result, he succeeded in Reference Biography: identify three blood groups A, B and O, are labeled C, from human blood. Landsteiner also discovered that the blood transfusion among people with the same blood type did not result in destruction of blood cells, whereas it occurs between people of different blood groups. Based on these findings, in 1907 the first successful blood transfusion was performed by Reuben Ottenberg at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. This day is also known that people with blood type AB can receive blood donations from other groups, and that people with blood type O can donate to all other groups. Individuals with blood type AB is called the universal recipient and the people with blood type O is known as the universal donor. This donor-recipient relationship arises because the fact that people with AB did not form antibodies against one of the blood group A or B. Furthermore, because of blood type O has no characteristic or B, the immune system of people with blood type AB did not reject the donation. In the current blood transfusion of red blood cell concentrate only without serum sent, which is very important in surgical practice. In 1930 Landsteiner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of this achievement. After World War I, Vienna and Austria of the new republic as a whole is in a remote state of the economy, a situation in which Landsteiner not look likely to continue the research work. He decided to move to the Netherlands and accepting a post as prosector at Ziekenhuis small Catholic hospital in The Hague and, in order to improve his financial situation also took a job at a small factory, producing old tuberculin (tuberculinum prestinum). He also published several papers, five of them published in the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. But working conditions proved to be no better than the post-war Vienna. So Landsteiner received inivitation that reached him from New York, initiated by Simon Flexner, who is familiar with the work of Landsteiner, to work for the Rockefeller Institute. With his family arrived there in the spring of 1923. Throughout the 1920's Landsteiner worked on the problem of immunity and allergy. In 1927 he discovered a new blood group: M, N and P, refine the work that had begun 20 years earlier. Soon after Landsteiner and his collaborator, Philip Levine, published work and, in 1927, began to be used in setting the type father. In the field of bacteriology Landsteiner and Clara Nigg 1930-1932 succeeded in Rickettsia prowazekii culture, the causative agent of typhoid fever, on the live media

Landsteiner was serving in a war hospital in 1916 when, at age 48, he married Leopoldine Helene Wlasto. Their only child, son, born the following year and was baptized Karl Ernst on April 8, 1917. He became a surgeon in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1929 Landsteiner became a U.S. citizen. Karl Landsteiner died of a heart attack while working in his laboratory at the age of 75. He was buried in Nantucket, Massachusetts, where he and his family have spent many summers.

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