Imam Asy-Shafi'i biography

Abū ʿ Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi ʿ i or Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Syafi `i (Arabic: محمد بن إدريس الشافعي) is usually called the Imam Shafi'i (Gaza, Palestine, 150 H / 767 - Fusthat, Egypt 204H / 819M) is a large Sunni mufti of Islam and also the founder of Shafi. Imam Shafi'i is also considered a relative of the Prophet, he was included in the Bani Muttalib, the descendants of al-Muttalib, brother of Hashim, who was the grandfather of Muhammad.
At the age of 20 years, Imam Shafii went to Medina to sit under the great scholars at the time, Imam Malik. Two years later, he also went to Iraq, to ​​sit under the disciples of Imam Hanafi there.
Syafi Imam `i had two different basis to the Shafi'i School. The first name Qaulun Qadeem and Qaulun Jadid.

Birth and family life


Many historians argue that Imam Shafi'i was born in Gaza, the Palestinians, but among these there is also the opinion stating that he was born in Asqalan; a city which is about three farsakh from Gaza. According to historians as well, Imam Shafi'i was born in the year 150 H, which this year also died of a Sunni cleric named Imam Abu Hanifah.


Imam Shafi'i is a descendant of al-Muttalib, so he belongs to the Bani Muttalib. Nasab He is Muhammad ibn Idris ibn al-Abbas ibn 'Uthman bin Syafi' bin Al-Abdi Sa'ib bin Yazid bin Ubaid bin Hashim bin Al-Mutthalib bin bin Qusayy Abdulmanaf Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka'b bin bin bin Ghalib Lu'ay Fihr bin bin Malik bin An-Nadhr Khuzaimah bin bin bin Kinanah Mudrikah bin Ilyas bin Mudar Bin Nizar bin Adnan bin Ma'ad. Nasabnya met the Prophet in Abdul-Manaf.
Of these nasab, Mutthalib bin Al-Abdi Manaf, the grandfather of Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Syafi `ie, is the brother of Hashim ibn Abdi Manaf grandfather Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu` alaihi wa alihi wasallam.

Then the siblings also Mutthalib bin Abdul Hashim, the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu `alaihi wasallam alihi wa, named Shifa ', married by Abdi Yazid bin Ubaid, thus giving birth to a son named As-Sa'ib, father Syafi'. To Syafi 'bin Al-`Sa'ib radliyallahu anhuma this is attributed nasabnya orphaned baby so famous by the name of Muhammad ibn Idris ash-ie Al-` Syafi Mutthalibi. Thus nasab orphans is very close to the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu `alaihi wa alihi wasallam.

In fact, because Hashim ibn Abdi Manaf, who later gave birth to the Banu Hashim, are siblings with Mutthalib bin Abdi Manaf, who gave birth Mutthalib Bani, then the Messenger of Allah said:

"It is only us (ie Banu Hashim) with them (ie Banu Mutthalib) derived from one nasab. As he crossed his fingers crossed his arms. "
-HR. Abu Al-Asfahani Nu'aim in its juz Hilyah 9 p. 65-66

 Period of study

After Imam Shafi'i father died and two years of his birth, his mother took him to Mecca, the ancestral homeland. He grew up there in a state of orphans. Since childhood, Shafi quickly memorize the poem, good Arabic language and literature to the extent that Al Ashma'i said, "I mentashih Hudzail children's poems of a young man from the Quraish called Mohammed bin Idris," Imam Shafi'i imam language is Arab.

Studied in Mecca

In Makkah, Imam Shafi'i fiqh to the mufti sit there, Muslims, Khalid ibn Az Zanji so let him give fatwah when he was aged 15 years. After he felt the sweet science, then by taufiq God and His guidance, he began to enjoy learning fiqh after being the first in Arabic and sya'irnya. These orphaned teenagers learn from the scholars of fiqh 'jurisprudence in Mecca, as Muslim khalid bin Az-Zanji who was domiciled as mufti of Mecca.
Later he also learned from Dawud ibn Abd Al-Atthar, also learned from his uncle by the name of Muhammad bin Ali bin Syafi ', ​​and also gain knowledge of Sufyan bin Uyainah.
Other teachers in fiqh is Rahman bin Abi Bakr Al-Mulaiki, Sa'id bin Salim bin Al-Ayyadl Fudhail and many others. He was more prominent in the field of jurisprudence in just a few years sitting on various halaqah science scholars' jurisprudence referred to above.

Studied in Medina

Then he went to Medina and studied fiqh to Imam Malik ibn Anas. He recite the book of Muwatta 'Imam Malik and memorized in 9 nights. Imam Shafi'i narrated from Sufyan bin Uyainah, Fudlail Iyadl son and his uncle, Mohammed bin Syafi 'and others.
In the assembly he was, the orphan is to memorize and understand the brilliant book of the work of Imam Malik, Al-Muwatta '. Imam Malik intelligence makes most admire. Meanwhile, As-Syafi `ie own very impressed and greatly admired the Imam Malik in Al-Madinah and Imam Sufyan bin Uyainah in Makkah.

He expressed his admiration after a priest with the famous statement reads: "If no-Malik bin Anas and Sufyan bin Uyainah, will undoubtedly goes the science of the Hijaz." And he further stated his admiration for Imam Malik: "When it comes Imam Malik in an assembly , then Malik became a star in the assembly. "He was also very impressed with the book Al-Muwatta 'Imam Malik that he declared:" No book is more useful after the Qur'an, much of the book Al-Muwatta'. "He also stated: "I have not read Al-Muwatta 'Malik, but had to increase my understanding."

From the various statements above his teacher that it can be known that he admired most was Imam Malik bin Anas, then Imam Sufyan bin Uyainah. In addition, these youth also sat memorize and understand the science of the Ulama 'in Al-Madinah, such as Sa'ad bin Ibrahim, Isma'il bin Jafar, Khalid bin Atthaf, Abdul Aziz Ad-Darawardi. He also memorized a lot of science in his association Ibrahim bin Abi Yahya. But unfortunately, the latter a teacher he was a liar in the hadith narrated, has the same view with Qadariyah schools that refuse to believe in taqdir and many other fatal flaws. So that when the Quraish youth has been known for the title of Imam `Syafi ie, especially at the end of his life, he no longer wanted to mention the name of Ibrahim ibn Abi Yahya in a variety of transmission of knowledge.

In Yemen

Imam Shafi'i then went to Yemen and worked there briefly. Disebutkanlah series of Ulama 'of Yemen visited by him is like: Mutharrif bin Mazin, Hisham ibn Yusuf al-Qadli and many others. From Yemen, he continued his scientific tour to the city of Baghdad in Iraq and in the city he took a lot of knowledge from Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, a jurist in the land of Iraq. Also he took the science of Isma'il ibn Abdul Wahhab Ulaiyyah and Ats-Thaqafi and many others.

In Baghdad, Iraq

Then go to Baghdad (183 and 195 years), where he studied from Muhammad ibn Hasan. He has made the exchange of ideas that Ar Rashid Khalifah.

In Egypt

Shafi'i Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal met in Mecca in 187 H and in Baghdad in 195 H. Of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Imam Shafi'i studied fiqhnya, usul madzhabnya, and mansukhnya nasikh explanation. In Baghdad, Imam Shafi'i wrote his old schools (schools qodim). Beliu then moved to Egypt in 200 H and write the new schools (schools jadid). There he died a syuhadaul ilm at the end of the month of Rajab 204 AH


One essay is the "Ar treatise" The first book about usul fiqh and the book "Al-Umm" that contains fiqhnya new schools. Imam Shafi'i was an absolute mujtahid, imams of fiqh, hadith, and usul. He was able to integrate Iraqi fiqh and fiqh expert expert Hijaz. Imam Ahmad said about Imam Shafi'i, "He is one of the most faqih in the Qur'an and Sunnah," "No one has ever held the pen and ink (science), but God gave him the 'neck' Shafi,". Thasy Kubri said in Miftahus Sa'adah, "the expert scholars of fiqh, usul, the traditions, language, nahwu, and other disciplines have agreed that the nature of the mandate Shafi (trust), 'adaalah (religious and moral credibility), ascetic, wara ', pious, generous, good behavior, a high degree. People who have much to say his life it is still not complete, "


Basic madzhabnya: Al Quran, Sunnah, Ijma 'and Qiyas. He also did not take istihsan (assume both a problem) as the basis madzhabnya, refused maslahah mursalah, deeds the people of Medina. Imam Shafi'i said, "Those who do istihsan then he has created the Shari'a,". Baghdad resident said, "Imam Shafi'i is nashirussunnah (defenders of the Sunnah),"


The book "Al Hujjah" which is narrated by the four schools of the old Iraqi priest; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Thawr, Za'farani, Al Karabisyi of Imam Shafi'i.

Umm Al-

While the book "Al-Umm" as the new schools of Imam Shafi'i narrated by his followers in Egypt: Al Muzani, Al Buwaithi, Ar Rabi 'bin Sulaiman Jizii. Imam Shafi'i said about madzhabnya, "If a hadeeth contrary to my words, then he (the hadith) is madzhabku, and cast my words behind the wall,"

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