August Strindberg,The Author, Dramatic, and Painter From Sweden.

August Strindberg

Johan August Strindberg (January 22, 1849 - 14 May 1912) is an author, dramatic, and the Swedish painters. He is one of the most important Swedish author. Strindberg is known as one of the fathers of modern theater. His works fall into two main streams of literature: Naturalism and Expressionism.


Strindberg was born Stockholm as the fourth child of Carl Oscar Strindberg, a shipping agent from a bourgeois family, and Ulrika Eleonora (Nora) Norling, a woman whose age was 12 years younger, with a modest background, and often referred to as a "woman servant" in the title of her autobiographical novel, Tjänstekvinnans son (Son of a waiter). Her paternal grandfather, Zacharias, was born in 1758 as the son of a clergyman in Jämtland and in Stockholm and later settled, became a merchant rich spices and major in the Corps of Military Burghers. Strindberg's aunt, Lisette, married British-born inventor and industrialist, Samuel Owen. Brother Carl Oscar Strindberg, Johan Ludvig Strindberg, was a successful businessman, and is regarded as an example for the main character's uncle Arvid Falk rich and ambitious novel in terms of social in August Strindberg, rummet Wheels (Red Room).

Version of Strindberg himself about his childhood, as he had hoped seen by others, can be found by readers in his novel Son of A waiter, but at least one of his biographers, Olof Lagercrantz, warns that people do not use it is not critical as a source biography. Much of what Strindberg had written autobiographical character, but Lagercrantz show Strindberg talent "to make us believe what he wants us to believe" and ketidakrelaannya, which has been known since the time of his life, to accept a different portrayal of the personal self rather than what he own desire.

Since the age of seven, Strindberg grew up in the area north of the Nordic Light is still the village, on the outskirts of Stockholm, not far from the park where the statue of Strindberg by Carl Eldh later placed (Tegnerlunden). He attended elementary school in the area of ​​Klara and Jakob, then go to Stockholm Lyceum, a progressive private school full of boys from middle-class families over and over. He completed his studentexamen, the final exam, which gives him a chance to get into university, on May 25, 1867, and passed the matriculation at the University of Uppsala in the autumn of the same.


For several years he had he lived in Uppsala or at home reading to prepare for the exam to be taken in Uppsala, while trying other things. He first left Uppsala in 1868 to work as a school teacher, learn kimi for some time at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm in preparing to study medicine, work by giving private lessons and become extra energy in the Royal Theatre in Stockholm.

He returned to Uppsala in January 1870, while working on a number of plays. The first of them is about the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen Denmark, which was first performed at the Theatre Royal in September 1870. in Uppsala. He started a small literary club, Runa, with some friends, all of them took the pseudonym of Norse mythology; Strindberg called himself Fro according to the name of the god of fertility. He spent several semesters in Uppsala again, and finally left in March 1872, without ever graduating. Later he was often mocked Uppsala and its professors, and several years later he published Fran Fjerdingen och Svartbäcken ("From Fjerdingen and Svartbäcken", 1877), a collection of short stories is a portrait of student life of Uppsala.

After leaving the university for the last time, he began his career as a journalist and critic for newspapers in Stockholm.
Strindberg married three times, with Siri von Essen (1850-1912), Frida Uhl (1872-1943), and finally with Harriet Bosse (1878-1961). Although he obtained a number of children of each wife, her character is very sensitive and neurotic produce a bitter divorce. Towards the end of his life he met a young actress and painter Fanny Falkner (1890-1963), who later wrote a book about the last years of Strindberg, but the nature of their relationship is still debated. He never held a brief affair with Dagny Juel in Berlin prior to her marriage to Frida, and once said that the shocking news about the murder Juel may have been the reason for Strindberg to cancel an already delayed honeymoon with his third wife, Harriet.

Strindberg relationship with women is fraught with problems, and the legacy of his words and his actions have often been interpreted as a misogynist (against women), both by his contemporaries and by modern readers. However, most people recognize that he has an unusual view of the hypocrisy of society about the expectations of gender, sexual behavior and morality. Marriage and family is emphasized during the lifetime of Strindberg while Sweden experienced industrialization and urbanization at a very fast rate. Prostitution and morality issues hotly debated among writers and critics as well as politicians. His early writings often discuss the traditional role of men and women who are forced by society and which he criticized as an unfair strategy.

Strindberg admired by the working class as a radical writer. He was a Socialist (or perhaps more of an Anarchist) and daughter Karin Strindberg married Vladimir Smirnov, one of the leading Russian Bolsheviks. About political attitudes, Strindberg was heavily promoted in socialist countries, such as the Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe and in Cuba.

He is an author who has many sides, and often extreme. After his death, a number of psychoanalysts have speculated that the contradictory nature and difficult due to the latent homosexual tendencies. Another mentioned his family life in childhood. His father, Oskar, is a small trader. His mother, whom he called a servant, before she married his father, was a domestic servant.

Her novel Red Room (Roda rummet) (1879) made him famous. His plays are first written in the Naturalistic style, and his works from this period is often compared to the dramatic Norwegian Henrik Ibsen. Strindberg's most famous plays of this period was Miss Julie (Julie Froken).

Later, he experienced a period of inner turmoil known as the Inferno Period, which culminated with the publication of a book written in French, Inferno.

After that he left the Naturalism and began to write works that dipengaurhi by symbolism. He is regarded as one of the pioneers of the Modern European stage and Expressionism. Dance of Death (Dödsdansen) and Ghost Sonata (Spöksonaten) is well-known dramas of this period.

As a student muad, before he became a writer, he worked for a while as an assistant in a pharmacy in the university town of Lund in southern Sweden.
In 1912 August Strindberg died at the age of 63 from cancer. He was interred in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. There are a number of sculptures and statues of his chest which was placed in Stockholm, and that stands out is the work of Carl Eldh.


"When a legal revolution? If the revolution was successful!"
"Is it the economy? Science created by the upper classes in order to obtain the fruits of lower-class jobs."
"I hate people who keep dogs. They are cowards who do not have the guts to bite people themselves."
"When they say that Christ descended into Hell, they mean he is down to earth, into the prison, the madhouse and morgue of the world."

Leave a Reply