Pervez Musharraf-President of Pakistan to-12

Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf, born in Delhi, India, August 11, 1943, age 68 years) is a former President, the Prime Minister and Pakistan's military chief of staff. He came to power on October 12, 1999 after a coup and became president on June 20, 2001. 100 character in the poll on the 2006 Time Magazine "The People Who Shape Our World", he was one of the leaders in power in order of number four.

Musharraf was born near Delhi (India). On the 12 October 1999 - 23 November 2002, he was prime minister. On October 6, 2007, he was re-elected as president of Pakistan for the third term of office. On 24 November 2007, the Election Commission of Pakistan announced, he was re-elected as president. He resigned on August 18, 2008 amid threats of impeachment led coalition government Asif Ali Zardari, the husband of the late former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.

Family background and education

Musharraf was born in Daryaganj in Delhi (India) and moved with his parents to Karachi (Pakistan) when India is divided into two regions in 1947. His parents came from middle-class background belakakng and both high school educated. Zehra (mother) studying English Literature and worked for the International Labor Organization (ILO), who retired in 1986. Syed Musharraf-ud-Din (father) is a graduate of the University Aligarh (India). His father worked in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and has a brilliant career and retired as Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For several years living in Turkey as a diplomat, so Musharraf stayed there in his childhood and learned to Turkish to fluent or mastered.
Musharraf studied at Saint Patrick High School (Karachi) and graduated in 1958 and went into the Forman Christian College in Lahore. In 1961, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy in Kalkul and perform at the Royal College of Defence Studies (United Kingdom). When the supervisor commented and noted the results of his study, "An officer is competent, eloquent, and very good personality, which provide a very valuable impact here. His country was lucky to get service from someone with unquestionable quality like this.

Military career
Pervez Musharraf

Lieutenant General. COAS Musharraf and I Corps Commander (Mangla)
In 1964, he was placed in an artillery regiment and fought with India as a young officer in 1965. For his bravery, he was awarded the Sanad Imtiazi. In the year 1967/1968, promoted to Captain. He was awarded the (military) Nishan-i-Imtiaz and Tamgha-i-Basalat. He became a lecturer at the Command Staff College, Quetta and get the war wing of the National Defense College of Pakistan. In addition he became relavan and participate as a commando, and remained devoted to the Special Services Group for seven years.

He also participated in the India-Pakistan War of 1971 as a Company Commander in a Commando Battalion Special Support Group (SSG). He is responsible for leading the regiment of artillery and armor divisions. On September 1987, when leading a unit of the mountain war in the newly formed SSG Khapalu base (Kashmir), he launched an offensive to seize the posts held by India on the track Bilafond La in Siachen though the glaze and then exposed to counter-attack. When it rose to the rank of major general on January 15, 1991, he was given the responsibility of commanding an Infantry Division and as a lieutenant-general responsible for the prestigious Corps striker on October 21, 1995.

Musharraf has held several important positions as staff and faculty in his career. He had been Director General of Military Operations at Headquarters in the period 1993-1995. Rose to the rank of general and appointed as Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan on October 7, 1998 when General Jehangir Karamat Chief of Staff was forced to resign because of demands that the military is given a place in Pakistan's National Security Council. He had a particular position as Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Armed Forces on 9 April 1999. He led the Pakistan army in Kargil War between India and Pakistan in May to July 1999. On 15 September 2004, Musharraf resigned as army chief of staff.

Coups and Chief Executive

In 1997, Nawaz Sharif was elected prime minister after the party he led Pakistan Muslim League won the election with overwhelming majority. These parties have enough seats in parliament, making it quite has the power to change the constitution by amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan-14. This will eliminate the checks and balances to limit the power of the prime minister.
The increasing tension between the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the military forces gives reason to believe, but apparently plotting a coup.

Increasing challenges to its power. President (civilian) Farooq Leghari and Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah was forced to resign. Chief Justice to resign after the Supreme Court building was attacked by supporters of Sharif. Army Chief of Staff Jehangir Karamat proposed the formation of the National Security Council as a forum for interaction between civilian leaders and military chiefs of staff. Kamarat sacked by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Pervez Musharraf menuunjuk Jnderal to replace it.
With the rise in the problem Musharraf was even more pointed. On October 12, 1999, Sharif attempted to fire Musharraf and lift the Inter-Forces Intelligence director Khwaja Ziauddin in his place. Musharraf, who was abroad trying to return to Pakistan with boarded a commercial airliner. The Army's senior generals refused to accept Musharraf's dismissal. Sharif ordered the Karachi airport to prevent the landing of the aircraft which then circling in the air over Karachi.

In a coup, the generals remove Sharif government and take over the airport. The plane landed with only enough fuel left for a few minutes only and Musharraf took over the government. To the position as the Executive, Pervez Musharraf became de facto Head of Government. He has extensive powers in Pakistan following a bloodless coup on October 12, 1999. Nawaz Sharif under house arrest and exiled abroad. President Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, who served since January 1, 1998 shall terminate his post on June 20, 2001. Since then, other than the Chief Executive, officially he raised himself as president. This comes just days before a scheduled visit to Agra for talks with India.

The Supreme Court, elections, and referendum

On May 12, 2000, the Supreme Court ordered Musharraf hold elections no later than October 12, 2002. To legitimize his presidency and ensure the continuation after the approaching restoration of democracy, he held a referendum on 30 April 2002. This situation allows to extend the presidential term to five years after the elections in October 2002. However, this referendum was boycotted by most political groups, so the number of participants is only 30% or lower may be estimated in general.

Elections held in October 2002 and formed a new party that Musharraf Pakistan Muslim League won a seat in parliament. The opposition parties practically paralyzed the National Assembly for over a year. This jam ended December 2003, when Musharraf bargained with the party Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, with the agreement that he would leave the Army on December 31, 2004.
With the support of the party, the pro-Musharraf parliament members can control two-thirds super-majority needed to pass the 17th Amendment to retroactively legalize Musharraf's coup in 1999 and many decrees issued afterwards. In a vote of confidence on January 1, 2004, Musharraf won 658 of 1170 votes in the Electoral College of Pakistan and according to Article 41 of the Constitution of Pakistan, he "deemed elected" as President until October 2007.

After 11 September 2001

Since his involvement as a senior officer at the Pakistan special forces to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, he has built a very good personal relationship with a number of sections of the U.S. security agencies. After the coup in 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton to call to express concern about the coup and want a stable South Asia. But then he called Gen. Anthony C. Zinni of the Marine Corps who was a leader of CENTCOM (Middle East). Musharraf, who addressed him as "Tony" to explain his reasons and his plans, so that General Zinni remains one of its strongest supporters.

After the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 in the United States, the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell and other administration officials met with Musharraf. He sided with the United States in the fight against the Taliban government in Afghanistan. Changes in policy and military aid to the United States is very critical. The bombing quickly toppled the Taliban regime the United States. Musharraf has worked closely with President George W. Bush's "War on Terror" and led to widespread dissatisfaction among the people of Pakistan for many reasons.

Shortly after the events of 11 September 2001, Musharraf gave a speech that is critical in Pakistan television. In his speech, he pledged his personal support to the United States and Pakistan in the war against terrorism. Although the Taliban generally is an independent phenomenon, but there is an impression that the Taliban regime was the product of agency Inter-Services Intelligence Pakistan who works on the 'strategic depth' to ensure the presence of a friendly regime in Afghanistan to Pakistan and to reduce the number of refugees flowing into the Pakistan and prevent further burden on the ailing economy. This new policy seems to be a change of 180 ° of the policies of the old and valued by analysts at the assessment centers such as the Brookings Institute as evidence of the sincerity of Musharraf
Support of the United States is crucial in defeating the Taliban in Afghanistan is easy. This is done after a rapid and strategic decision to stop supporting Pakistan against the Taliban. Pakistan cuts supply lines logistics of oil and the Taliban, providing intelligence and act as a regional logistical support to Operation Eternal Freedom.

Musharraf, who is fluent in English and has given many interviews and speeches on various television channels USA and Europe as well as other media. He also never spoke at the assessment centers such as RAND Corporation in Santa Monica (California) in June 2003. Support for the war on terror led by the United States has caused it not liked by some right-wing fundamentalist parties of Pakistan. Image of the United States in Pakistan has been a lot of injuries after the 2003 invasion of Iraq without a UN resolution (United Nations). Musharraf flatly refused to send troops to Pakistan to Iraq without a UN resolution. He has proved a little surprise and was widely praised for anti-corruption campaign and the support of the United States in the War on Terrorism.

Tensions with India

A group of terrorists attacked the Indian Parliament with bombs and firearms on December 13, 2001. Pakistan and the United States is blamed for allegedly affected by Musharraf, thus mobilized for a counterattack. Musharraf rejected the allegations that Pakistan and assume responsibility for the attack is unfounded.
As a result, Washington to intense pressure. "Washington Post" (Jim Hoagland, January 17) said, "The United States forced General Musharraf pledged that Pakistan's intelligence agencies and the army will stop giving food, weapons and other logistical support to the infiltrators who conduct terrorist attacks in India and Kashmir ruled India. Army will no longer provide a mortar attack to protect the infiltrators, who are no longer supported by Musharraf.

Image of a moderate leader

Musharraf is considered a moderate leader by Western countries. Many believe that Musharraf is sincere in his desire to bridge the world of Islam with the West. Previously, he has spoken out against the idea that the 'clash of civilizations' between the two was inevitable. Furthermore, he coined the phrase "The attitude of the enlightened moderation" and actively promote such an attitude.

Musharraf's emotional ties with the United States can be considered important because at least two close family members living there, that her brother is a doctor living near Chicago, Illinois and her son living in Boston, Massachusetts. His son received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from MIT and a business of high-tech (high tech) that obtain venture fund in Boston. His son daughter is a graduate of National College of Arts in Lahore and became an architect. My older brother who was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford was a Police Commissioner in the Government of Pakistan before retiring from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in Rome, Italy.

Controversy as president and army chief

A pro-Musharraf party, the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) won a plurality of votes in the October 2002 elections and formed a majority coalition with independents and allies such as the MQM. However, opposition parties managed to tie up the National Assembly by rejecting the legitimacy of Musharraf's rule. In December 2003, as part of a compromise with the main Islamist opposition group, Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, General Musharraf said that he would resign from his post as army chief on January 1, 2005.

In return, the MMA agreed to support a constitutional amendment that would legalize the coup backed Musharraf and restore some of the checks and balances to the government system of Pakistan. But at the end of 2004, the pro-Musharraf parliament approved a bill allowing Musharraf to maintain the second position, and Musharraf agreed.

Popularity in Pakistan

In August 2007, Musharraf has lost its popularity in the country. A survey of the International Republican Institute showed that 64% population of Pakistan does not want Musharraf to extend his term as president of Pakistan. The Economist magazine reported today Pakistan is a mess, even in the standard of Pakistan itself. A prominent journalist Ayaz Amir stated Gen. Musharraf is "the authors own misfortune". He also stated that unlike other dictators, Musharraf can come out easily, the way he should follow.
However, on October 6th, Pakistan Parliament re-elect Musharraf as president for next term. In the election itself is a lot of opposition politicians who resigned from parliament, to protest Musharraf's candidacy, when he was Commander of the Pakistan Army. [However, Musharraf's presidency is still determined by the Pakistan High Court decision regarding the legality of Musharraf's candidacy.

Reject extremism

On January 12, 2002, Musharraf gave a landmark speech against extremism based on religion. Musharraf strongly condemned all acts of terrorism, including all in the name of liberating the majority Muslim Kashmir from Indian rule. He also pledged to combat all forms of extremism and illegal actions within Pakistan itself.
On 14-16 July 2001, President Musharraf following the summit in the city of Agra with India Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. The purpose of this meeting is the normalization of relations between the two countries, by initiating a plan for resolution of Kashmir issue. With regard to his visit, President Musharraf stated on many occasions that he demonstrated a flexible approach. In addition, he expressed his desire to be recognized as the leader of Pakistan is "making history" (with) long to solve the crisis, namely Kashmir.

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