Enrico Fermi Biography

Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (born 29 September 1901 - died 28 November 1954 at age 53 years) was an Italian-American physicist who is best remembered for his work in the beta decay, the development of the first nuclear reactor, and the development of quantum theory. He won the Nobel Prize in physics 1938.

He graduated brilliantly and received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Pisa before reaching age twenty-one years. He was, Enrico Fermi, the first atomic reactor designer who was born in 1901 in Rome, Italy. By the age of twenty-six years he was a full professor at the University of Rome. And meantime he had published a major paper, one branch of physics that deals with difficult and deep-called "quantum statistics." In this paper, Fermi developed the statistical theory is used to describe the behavior of the unification of particles in large numbers of separate, species now referred to as "fermions." Because the electrons, protons and neutrons - three "cluster building" consisting of ordinary objects - all of which "fermions." Fermi theory has very important significance for science. This opens the possibility of a statement we have a better understanding of the principal nucleus, about the degradation behavior of an object (such as occurs on the inside of a particular type stars), and of which contained elements of metal properties. This is clearly a subject matter that has a lot to.

In 1933 Fermi formulated a theory about the "deterioration of beta" (a type of radioactivity) that linked the first quantitative discussion of the "neutrino and weak interaction," two important topics in physics today. Such investigations, although not easy to understand layman, puts Fermi as one of the leading physicists in the world. However, the most important results of Fermi's work not yet emerged.

1932, an English physicist, James Chadwick, has managed to find a name subatomis particles: neutrons. Starting from 1934, Fermi continued by way of delivering high-speed particles of atoms with neutrons. Experiments show that many types of atoms capable of absorbing neutrons, and in many cases the atoms resulting from the conversion of this kind containing radioactive nuclear.

People rightly expect that it would be much easier for the neutron leak into the main part of the atom when a neutron moving at high speed. However, the experimental Fermi showed the opposite of that. Namely, when a fast neutron dipelankan first by making him pass through the "paraffin" or water, he can be more readily absorbed by the atom. This discovery is very important in use in the field of nuclear reactor construction. The materials used in reactors to make slow motion of the neutrons are known in the term "moderator."

In 1938, Fermi important investigations on the absorption of neutrons to make it earn the Nobel Prize in physics. But, along with that he has trouble in Italy. First, Fermi's wife was Jewish while Fascist governments in Italy have issued a number of laws that smacks of anti-Jewish. Second, the Fermi berfaham a persistent anti-fascist, a very dangerous attitude when the Italian dictator Mussolini below. In December 1938, when he went to Strockholm to receive the Nobel Prize, he did not return to Italy, but went to New York. Erratic course, University of Colombia can prance experts one of the scientists of the largest in the world. Not thinking, Fermi immediately available position. Fermi become U.S. citizens in 1944.

In early 1939, reported by Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann discovered that the absorption of neutrons sometimes causes the uranium atoms to be separated. When the news broke of this report, Fermi (as well as some leading physicists) immediately realized that the separate-pisahnya uranium atom can release enough neutrons to start a chain reaction. Furthermore, Fermi (also with other physicists) immediately see and imagine the military potential that can be generated by this chain reaction. Towards the month of March 1939, Fermi had contacted the U.S. Navy and trying to attract their attention in the fabrication of atomic weapons. However, only a few months later, after Albert Einstein wrote a letter on the subject to President Roosevelt, then the United States government concerned with atomic energy.

Once the government of the United States are interested, the task of scientists is the main thing is to build a prototype tool to monitor the release of atomic energy to see if the chain reaction that could hold its own can actually be accounted for. Because a scientist Enrico Fermi who weighs and authorities in matters of neutrons, and because he already incorporates both theoretical and practical talent experiments, he was appointed head of the group to try to build the world's first atomic reactor. First he worked at the University of Colombia, then at the University of Chicago. In this Chicago, dated December 2, 1942, the nuclear reactor was completed successfully designed and built under the supervision of Fermi. This is truly a first round of the atomic era, because for the first time in human history people managed to create a nuclear chain reaction. This successful experiment was soon sent to the east with the magic words but contain hidden images, "the Italian navigator has set foot in the new world." After the successful event of this trial, it was decided to rush forward as quickly as possible through the so-called "Manhattan Project." Fermi continued to play a role in determining the project that stands out as an expert advisor.

After the war, Fermi become professor at the University of Chicago. He died in 1954, Fermi married and two children. Chemical element number 100, "fermium," called his name as a mark of respect.

Fermi is an important one judge from any cause and majors. First, no doubt he was the greatest scientist of the 20th century and one of the few famous both as a theorist and experimentalist. There is very little scientific work unfolded in this book, but Fermi had written over 200 scientific articles during his career.

Second, Fermi is a very important figure in terms of fabrication of an atomic bomb, although some others hold the role of equal importance in the job.

However, the significance of Fermi's most basic role of the main stem from which he held in the discovery of atomic reactors. Obviously Fermi share in this relationship. He gave a decisive contribution of the theory, and he supervised its design and construction as well as the first reactor.

Since 1945, there was no atomic bomb used in warfare, but a large number of nuclear reactors built to generate energy for peaceful purposes. These reactors would have seemed even more important meaning in the future. Moreover, several reactors are used for a useful memprodusir radio isotopes, which are used in medical and scientific inquiry. The reactor is also - and more frightening - a source of "Plutonium," the main ingredient (substance) that can be used to make atomic weapons. There is an understandable fear that a nuclear reactor could be catastrophic for humanity, but no one thought that the discovery was trivial stuff. Whether for good or for evil, Fermi's work will have far-reaching impact in the future.

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